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Alajuela, Costa Rica

The governance of civil society organizations (CSOs) is a crucial determinant of organizational legitimacy, accountability, and performance. International nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) are a subtype of CSOs and have received a lot of attention as actors in global governance. Research suggests that INGOs can follow a membership model, where the board is elected by the membership, or a board-managed model, where the board is appointed to represent major stakeholders. Following resource dependency theory, we argue that the choice between these two models depends on the INGOs different sources of funding and the degree of volunteer involvement: As donors and volunteers provide important resources, they are in turn granted the right to nominate board members or to sit on the board. In our quantitative study we show that individual members, regional member organizations, and governmental donors hold a stronger position in the governance of INGOs than philanthropists, foundations and volunteers. Our results inform research on CSO governance by highlighting the relevance of board nomination modes and by showing how CSOs can incorporate stakeholders into their governance mechanisms. © 2011 International Society for Third-Sector Research and The John's Hopkins University. Source

Hug N.,Impact and Strategy Support | Hug N.,University of St. Gallen | Jager U.P.,INCAE Business School, Costa Rica
Voluntas | Year: 2014

In economic development nonprofits, the disparity between the nonprofit's, its donor's and the poor's expectations concerning poverty alleviation has been identified as the main reason for ineffective aid delivery. The study at hand contributes to this discussion by following this question: How do the nonprofit, its donors, the supported SMEs, and the poor refer to the nonprofit's mission of poverty alleviation when negotiating accountability? To answer this question, the study follows the literature on accountability and resource dependency and presents results of an empirical case study on multiple accountability relations between a donor, a development aid nonprofit, its supported SMEs, and the poor living in the environment of the supported SMEs. The results show a pattern we call "resource-based accountability." This pattern is constituted by the observation that most of the stakeholders tried to meet the expectations of the resource owners with respect to the resource owner's understanding of successful poverty alleviation. Finally, the paper introduces a hypothesis for further studies. © 2013 International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University. Source

Kraiselburd S.,Torcuato Di Tella University | Kraiselburd S.,INCAE Business School, Costa Rica | Yadav P.,University of Michigan
Production and Operations Management | Year: 2013

Many people in developing countries do not have access to effective vaccines, medicines, and other life-saving health technologies. Shortage of health care workers, severe financial constraints, and lack of awareness are some of the major obstacles that prevent higher access. However, ineffective and poorly designed supply chains for purchasing and distributing the medicines, vaccines, and health technologies are one of the most important barriers to increasing access. We argue that the ineffectiveness of the global health supply chain can be attributed largely to: coordination problems across multiple stakeholders with widely divergent objectives, lack of careful supply chain design, and use of myopic operational objectives and metrics. The operations management research community can contribute to improving this by applying existing knowledge to the field of global health delivery and by researching new frameworks of analysis which would then become the cornerstones for policy advice to those who design, operate, or finance these supply chains. © 2012 Production and Operations Management Society. Source

Kraiselburd S.,Zaragoza Logistics Center | Kraiselburd S.,INCAE Business School, Costa Rica | Pibernik R.,Zaragoza Logistics Center | Pibernik R.,Institute of Business Management
Production and Operations Management | Year: 2011

Although, ceteris paribus, reducing lead times may be desirable from an overall system perspective, an upstream party (e.g., a manufacturer) may have strong disincentives to offer shorter lead times, even if this came at no cost. We consider a setting in which the downstream party has the ability to exert a costly effort to increase demand (e.g., through sales promotions, advertising, etc.) during the selling season, and compare two situations: one where there is zero lead time (i.e., all demand can be satisfied after observing the demand realization), and one where orders need to be made before demand is realized. We identify two interacting effects that may inhibit shorter lead times. A so-called "safety stock effect" can be observed when a lower risk of stocking out under short lead times induces the downstream party to alter her order quantity. A second effect, termed as "effort effect," arises if shorter lead times impact the downstream party's optimal sales effort, and, as a consequence, lead to different order quantities. We provide a formal characterization of both effects, insight into how these effects interact, and show under which conditions the manufacturer has an incentive to offer shorter lead times. © 2010 Production and Operations Management Society. Source

Ogliastri E.,IE Business School | Jager U.P.,INCAE Business School, Costa Rica
Voluntas | Year: 2015

Some nonprofits evolve from small into large international organizations. For years, “structure follows strategy” (Chandler) has been the dictum to explain organizational strategic changes like the ones in nonprofits. But scholars also recognized organization structure to be a precondition to carry out certain strategies. Nevertheless, research on structure and strategy in nonprofits is limited. This paper explores the mutual influence of organization structure and strategy in high-performing nonprofits in Iberoamerica based on a secondary analysis of 20 unpublished research cases of the Social Enterprise Knowledge Network. It follows the research question: Which organizations’ strategies and structures characterize high-performing nonprofits over time? Four types of organizing patterns emerged: starting-up, professionalizing, decentralizing, and conglomerating. © 2015 International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University Source

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