Alajuela, Costa Rica

Time filter

Source Type

Ogliastri E.,IE Business School | Jager U.P.,INCAE Business School, Costa Rica | M. Prado A.,INCAE Business School, Costa Rica
Voluntas | Year: 2016

Some nonprofits evolve from small into large international organizations. For years, “structure follows strategy” (Chandler) has been the dictum to explain organizational strategic changes like the ones in nonprofits. But scholars also recognized organization structure to be a precondition to carry out certain strategies. Nevertheless, research on structure and strategy in nonprofits is limited. This paper explores the mutual influence of organization structure and strategy in high-performing nonprofits in Iberoamerica based on a secondary analysis of 20 unpublished research cases of the Social Enterprise Knowledge Network. It follows the research question: Which organizations’ strategies and structures characterize high-performing nonprofits over time? Four types of organizing patterns emerged: starting-up, professionalizing, decentralizing, and conglomerating. © 2015, International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University.


Jager U.P.,INCAE Business School, Costa Rica | Schroer A.,Portland State University
Voluntas | Year: 2014

In contemporary societies an increasing number of social needs have to be financed by market activities. In this regard, scholars started to discuss whether ‘Social Innovation’, ‘Social Entrepreneurship’, ‘CSR’, ‘Social Enterprise’, ‘Enterprising Nonprofits’, and ‘Social Business’ are able to provide solutions for financially sustainable social services. Just how these so-called Hybrid Organizations balance the tension between social and economic issues still requires conceptualization. This paper introduces the following definition based on the literature on organizational identity, civil society, and marketized nonprofits: Hybrids are characterized by an organizational identity that systematically integrates civil society and markets, exchange communal solidarity for financial and non-financial resources, calculate the market value of communal solidarity, and trade this solidarity for financial and nonfinancial resources. In other words they “Create Functional Solidarity”. Criteria to empirically observe Hybrid Organizations are also introduced and compared to similar concepts. The paper concludes with an outline of a research agenda. © 2013, International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University.


The governance of civil society organizations (CSOs) is a crucial determinant of organizational legitimacy, accountability, and performance. International nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) are a subtype of CSOs and have received a lot of attention as actors in global governance. Research suggests that INGOs can follow a membership model, where the board is elected by the membership, or a board-managed model, where the board is appointed to represent major stakeholders. Following resource dependency theory, we argue that the choice between these two models depends on the INGOs different sources of funding and the degree of volunteer involvement: As donors and volunteers provide important resources, they are in turn granted the right to nominate board members or to sit on the board. In our quantitative study we show that individual members, regional member organizations, and governmental donors hold a stronger position in the governance of INGOs than philanthropists, foundations and volunteers. Our results inform research on CSO governance by highlighting the relevance of board nomination modes and by showing how CSOs can incorporate stakeholders into their governance mechanisms. © 2011 International Society for Third-Sector Research and The John's Hopkins University.


Barahona J.C.,INCAE Business School, Costa Rica | Elizondo A.,INCAE Business School, Costa Rica
Proceedings of the European Conference on e-Government, ECEG | Year: 2012

Worldwide public e-procurement has been linked to a myriad of promises, but in practice, it has achieved little. Even though, there is a tendency in the literature to document relative successes more than failures, partial implementations or unaccomplished objectives, there are a series of factors that can be garnered that are important to the success or failure of these initiatives. Our research, however, shows that to date all of this research has failed to recognize that e-procurement is a disruptive innovation, based on also disruptive technologies. Recognition of this fact has serious strategic and organizational implications predicted by the literature. Empirical evidence suggests the relevance of recognizing and factoring in its implications as a key success factor.


Marin J.N.,INCAE Business School, Costa Rica
Academia | Year: 2010

In late February 2007, Ernesto Ávila, CFO of Productos Alimenticios Excelsior (PAESA), was about to assess three proposals to finance a product line expansion project in the company. Both the Board of Directors and the management team considered this project, known as Alpha Project, to be profitable and strategically important. Investment in facilities, machinery, and equipment had been estimated at US$5 million. The Board of Directors was to meet in a few days, and the most important item on their agenda would be deciding on pae sa's most desirable financing method. Mr. Ávila was studying three specific funding possibilities: a five-year subordinated bank loan, an issue of cumulative preferred stocks, or an equity increase. Selecting the most suitable financing would be based on a cost analysis, a risk-creditworthiness assessment, and likely variations in company control. The Board of Directors also had to take into account such factors as future financial flexibility and borrowing policy changes in a family-owned business resulting from a change in CEO.


Hug N.,Impact and Strategy Support | Hug N.,University of St. Gallen | Jager U.P.,INCAE Business School, Costa Rica
Voluntas | Year: 2014

In economic development nonprofits, the disparity between the nonprofit's, its donor's and the poor's expectations concerning poverty alleviation has been identified as the main reason for ineffective aid delivery. The study at hand contributes to this discussion by following this question: How do the nonprofit, its donors, the supported SMEs, and the poor refer to the nonprofit's mission of poverty alleviation when negotiating accountability? To answer this question, the study follows the literature on accountability and resource dependency and presents results of an empirical case study on multiple accountability relations between a donor, a development aid nonprofit, its supported SMEs, and the poor living in the environment of the supported SMEs. The results show a pattern we call "resource-based accountability." This pattern is constituted by the observation that most of the stakeholders tried to meet the expectations of the resource owners with respect to the resource owner's understanding of successful poverty alleviation. Finally, the paper introduces a hypothesis for further studies. © 2013 International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University.


Ciravegna L.,INCAE Business School, Costa Rica | Brenes E.R.,INCAE Business School, Costa Rica
Journal of Business Research | Year: 2016

This case discusses Selectos, a retail chain based in El Salvador, which was put under severe strain when Walmart entered its domestic market, threatening the leading position it had acquired through many decades of investment. The case illustrates that Selectos succeeded in competing Vis a Vis Walmart because it implemented the principles of high reliability organizations. First, before Walmart entered the market, the Salvadoran company invested time and financial resources to audit its routines, finding several areas of improvement. Second, its core strategy was to focus on continuous improvements in its operations. Third, it engaged its workforce, and especially the shop floor managers, in the process of executing its strategy at the whole corporate level. Fourth, through consultation with the managers of its functional areas, it enacted systems to manage unexpected events, ranging from hurricanes to violent attacks on its facilities (preparation for unexpected events). The case is designed to illustrate how a domestic firm from an emerging market competes with a leading multinational corporation, emphasizing the importance of organizational learning, especially the development of routines and mechanisms that allow for flexibility and adaptability to changes in conditions. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Kraiselburd S.,Torcuato Di Tella University | Kraiselburd S.,INCAE Business School, Costa Rica | Yadav P.,University of Michigan
Production and Operations Management | Year: 2013

Many people in developing countries do not have access to effective vaccines, medicines, and other life-saving health technologies. Shortage of health care workers, severe financial constraints, and lack of awareness are some of the major obstacles that prevent higher access. However, ineffective and poorly designed supply chains for purchasing and distributing the medicines, vaccines, and health technologies are one of the most important barriers to increasing access. We argue that the ineffectiveness of the global health supply chain can be attributed largely to: coordination problems across multiple stakeholders with widely divergent objectives, lack of careful supply chain design, and use of myopic operational objectives and metrics. The operations management research community can contribute to improving this by applying existing knowledge to the field of global health delivery and by researching new frameworks of analysis which would then become the cornerstones for policy advice to those who design, operate, or finance these supply chains. © 2012 Production and Operations Management Society.


Ogliastri E.,IE Business School | Jager U.P.,INCAE Business School, Costa Rica
Voluntas | Year: 2015

Some nonprofits evolve from small into large international organizations. For years, “structure follows strategy” (Chandler) has been the dictum to explain organizational strategic changes like the ones in nonprofits. But scholars also recognized organization structure to be a precondition to carry out certain strategies. Nevertheless, research on structure and strategy in nonprofits is limited. This paper explores the mutual influence of organization structure and strategy in high-performing nonprofits in Iberoamerica based on a secondary analysis of 20 unpublished research cases of the Social Enterprise Knowledge Network. It follows the research question: Which organizations’ strategies and structures characterize high-performing nonprofits over time? Four types of organizing patterns emerged: starting-up, professionalizing, decentralizing, and conglomerating. © 2015 International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University


Kraiselburd S.,Zaragoza Logistics Center | Kraiselburd S.,INCAE Business School, Costa Rica | Pibernik R.,Zaragoza Logistics Center | Pibernik R.,Institute of Business Management | Raman A.,Harvard University
Production and Operations Management | Year: 2011

Although, ceteris paribus, reducing lead times may be desirable from an overall system perspective, an upstream party (e.g., a manufacturer) may have strong disincentives to offer shorter lead times, even if this came at no cost. We consider a setting in which the downstream party has the ability to exert a costly effort to increase demand (e.g., through sales promotions, advertising, etc.) during the selling season, and compare two situations: one where there is zero lead time (i.e., all demand can be satisfied after observing the demand realization), and one where orders need to be made before demand is realized. We identify two interacting effects that may inhibit shorter lead times. A so-called "safety stock effect" can be observed when a lower risk of stocking out under short lead times induces the downstream party to alter her order quantity. A second effect, termed as "effort effect," arises if shorter lead times impact the downstream party's optimal sales effort, and, as a consequence, lead to different order quantities. We provide a formal characterization of both effects, insight into how these effects interact, and show under which conditions the manufacturer has an incentive to offer shorter lead times. © 2010 Production and Operations Management Society.

Loading INCAE Business School, Costa Rica collaborators
Loading INCAE Business School, Costa Rica collaborators