Santo Domingo, Costa Rica
Santo Domingo, Costa Rica
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Townsend Jr. V.R.,Virginia Wesleyan College | Viquez C.,INBio | Vanzandt P.A.,Birmingham-Southern College | Proud D.N.,University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Zootaxa | Year: 2010

To facilitate identification of harvestmen of the family Cosmetidae in Central America, we developed dichotomous keys that distinguish the 33 known genera and the 133 described species for this region. Couplets are based upon characters found in the literature and examinations of museum specimens. Important characters include the number of tarsomeres on leg I, armature of the dorsal scutum, free tergites and legs, as well as the coloration and relative length of the body and legs. In addition, we provide a summary of sexually dimorphic features and comment on the potential usefulness of penis morphology and coloration as characters for distinguishing taxa. Copyright © 2010 Magnolia Press.

Proud D.N.,University of Louisiana at Lafayette | Vquez C.,INBio | Townsend Jr. V.R.,Virginia Wesleyan College
Journal of Arachnology | Year: 2011

Although relatively rare among harvestmen in the superfamily Gonyleptoidea, paternal care has been observed in the families Manaosbiidae and Gonyleptidae, but not previously in the Cosmetidae. In this study, we describe multiple observations of egg guarding by adult males of an undescribed species of cosmetid harvestman from Volcn Cacao, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica. Observations were made from 2628 July 2010, during the wet season. In this species, males only guard eggs after dusk, leaving eggs unattended during the day. Based upon differences in color and size, males guarded eggs through several stages of development. When guarding, males contacted the first two pairs of legs with the eggs. Oviposition sites consisted of the undersides of leaves of small plants, with eggs closely packed together in a single layer covered by abundant, transparent mucus. The largest, darkest eggs were located near the distal tip of the leaf. © 2011 The American Arachnological Society.

Janzen D.H.,University of Pennsylvania | Hallwachs W.,University of Pennsylvania | Harvey D.J.,Smithsonian Institution | Darrow K.,Smithsonian Institution | And 45 more authors.
Invertebrate Systematics | Year: 2012

Biodiversity of tropical Saturniidae, as measured through traditionally described and catalogued species, strongly risks pooling cryptic species under one name. We examined the DNA barcodes, morphology, habitus and ecology of 32 'well known' species of dry forest saturniid moths from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG) in north-western Costa Rica and found that they contain as many as 49 biological entities that are probably separate species. The most prominent splitting of traditional species-Eacles imperialis, Automeris zugana, Automeris tridens, Othorene verana, Hylesia dalina, Dirphia avia, Syssphinx molina, Syssphinx colla, and Syssphinx quadrilineata-is where one species was believed to breed in dry forest and rain forest, but is found to be two biological entities variously distinguishable by DNA barcodes and morphology, habitus, and/or microecological distribution. This implies that 'standard' biological information about each traditional species may be an unconscious mix of interspecific information, and begs renewed DNA barcoding, closer attention to so-called intraspecific variation, and increased museum collection and curation of specimens from more individual and ecologically characterised sites-as well as eventually more species descriptions. Simultaneously, this inclusion of sibling species as individual entities in biodiversity studies, rather than pooled under one traditional name, reduces the degree of ecological and evolutionary generalisation perceived by the observer. © CSIRO 2012 .

The following new species of geotrupids and scarabs from Costa Rica and Panama are described: Athyreus gulesseriani new species, Ateuchus alutacius new species (the first recorded brachypterous Ateuchus species), Coprophanaeus geph-yra new species, Deltochilum acanthus new species, and Onthophagus turgidus new species. The following two species of Coprophanaeus are revalidated: C. kohlmanni Arnaud and C. uhleri Malý & Pokorný. Illustrations of the dorsal habitus of the new species are provided, as well as distribution maps for all species. Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press.

Ratcliffe B.C.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Solis A.,INBio
Coleopterists Bulletin | Year: 2013

Orizabus australis Ratcliffe and Solís is described as a new species from Costa Rica. It resembles Orizabus hondurensis Ratcliffe and Cave from Honduras and is distinguished from that species. Species of Orizabus Fairmaire are known from the central United States to Honduras, but O. australis represents the first known occurrence for the genus in Costa Rica where it represents the southernmost occurrence of the genus. A revised key to the genera of Pentodontini of Costa Rica is provided, and O. australis is incorported into emended couplets of previously published keys to males and females of Orizabus species.

Solis A.,INBio | Kohlmann B.,EARTH University
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

The 182 species of Scarabaeinae known to occur in Costa Rica are listed with synonymies included. We place Uroxys macrocularis Howden and Young as a synonym of U. Boneti Pereira and Halffter (new synonym); we also place Uroxys depressifrons Howden and Young as a synonym of U. pauliani Balthasar (new synonym). We conducted a mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I barcoding analysis in order to clarify some taxonomic uncertainties with Phanaeus pyrois Bates and Sulcophanaeus noctis (Bates). We elevate Phanaeus pyrois malyi Arnaud to Phanaeus malyi and revalidate Phanaeus excelsus Bates as valid species. We consider the species Dichotomius nevermanni Luederwaldt as incertae sedis. A Costa Rican distribution map is provided for all species except Dichotomius costaricensis, which is only known from a country record. We report, map, and estimate the spread of the invasive species Euoniticellus intermedius (Reiche) for Central America, from Chiapas to Costa Rica. Copyright © 2012 Magnolia Press .

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