INAIL Research Area

Rome, Italy

INAIL Research Area

Rome, Italy
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Russo M.V.,University of Molise | Avino P.,INAIL Research Area | Perugini L.,University of Molise | Notardonato I.,University of Molise
RSC Advances | Year: 2016

An Ultrasound-Vortex-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro-Extraction (USVADLLME) procedure coupled with Gas Chromatography-Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (GC-IT/MS) is proposed for the fast analysis of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene and benzoperylene) in beer (alcohol by volume ≤7%). Among 5 possible extraction solvents tested, dichloromethane, density 1.325 g mL-1 at 25 °C, was selected for method development. Parameters such as extraction solvent type and volume, extraction time and pH, and NaCl concentration were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the enrichment factors of the nine analytes range between 100 and 200 fold, the recoveries from 83% to 99% and the correlation coefficients from 0.9982 to 0.9999. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) are ≥3.8 pg μL-1 and ≥9.8 pg μL-1, respectively. The precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), is ≤4.0%. The whole proposed methodology was demonstrated to be simple, reproducible and sensitive for the determination of trace PAHs in beer samples. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.


PubMed | University of Molise and INAIL Research Area
Type: | Journal: Natural product research | Year: 2016

The study and analysis of the materials employed in artistic paintings provide deeper knowledge about the history of the work of art, including restoration efforts made in the past, and the development of painting techniques through the centuries. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is the main analytical technique employed, as it proved to be the most suitable technique for the analysis of complex mixtures, thanks to its combination of sensitivity, wide range of applicability and versatility. Further, FT-IR technique has also been employed to get a preliminary screening of the samples taken from paintings. In this paper, the analytical protocol based on these two techniques has been applied for analysing natural terpenic resins; its performance has been tested on microsamples collected from paintings of valuable artistic interest.


Russo M.V.,University of Molise | Avino P.,INAIL Research Area
Natural Product Research | Year: 2016

The study and analysis of the materials employed in artistic paintings provide deeper knowledge about the history of the work of art, including restoration efforts made in the past, and the development of painting techniques through the centuries. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is the main analytical technique employed, as it proved to be the most suitable technique for the analysis of complex mixtures, thanks to its combination of sensitivity, wide range of applicability and versatility. Further, μFT-IR technique has also been employed to get a preliminary screening of the samples taken from paintings. In this paper, the analytical protocol based on these two techniques has been applied for analysing natural terpenic resins; its performance has been tested on microsamples collected from paintings of valuable artistic interest. © 2016 Taylor & Francis


Lenzuni P.,Italian National Workers Compensation Authority Research Area | Capone P.,INAIL Research Area | Freda D.,INAIL Research Area | Del Gaudio M.,INAIL Research Area
International Journal of Hyperthermia | Year: 2014

Purpose: This paper investigates the thermal conditions inside a passenger car driven after it was left a few hours in a shade-less parking lot, and the related implications for the driving performance. Materials and methods: Experimental results for twelve tests carried out in four different vehicles are presented and discussed. Each test is characterized by means of the predicted core temperature tcore of the driver after 60 minutes, as calculated by a heat stress model. The fractional performance loss is calculated by adjusting existing algorithms for office tasks to accommodate literature data on driving-related tasks, and then re-casting the algorithm as a function of tcore instead of the air temperature ta. Results: Based on measured temperatures and humidities, fractional performance losses up to 50% are predicted even for relatively simple tasks such as keeping the vehicle on a straight course. Performance losses in excess of 75% are predicted, under the most extreme thermal conditions, for demanding tasks, such as correctly identifying a signal and reacting in due time. Conclusions: The implementation in technical standards on heat stress assessment of two new thresholds is recommended. The lower threshold, to be set at tcore≅37.1°C, is aimed at ensuring that the subject is able to carry out demanding mental tasks without appreciable performance loss, while the higher threshold, to be set at tcore≅37.2°C applies to simpler tasks. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.


Cavallo D.,INAIL Research Area | Ursini C.L.,INAIL Research Area | Iavicoli S.,INAIL Research Area
Current Topics in Toxicology | Year: 2012

The growing production and use of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) in many applications and the inadequacy of information about the associated health risks mean that it is essential to boost our knowledge of their potential biological effects (at the molecular-cellular and organ-system levels). The production, spread and use of engineered NMs is relatively recent and exposure assessment is complex, so no epidemiological studies or information on their toxicity, particularly on exposed workers, are available yet. Studies to date have been mainly in vitro or on animals - mostly mice. Some have highlighted the potential cytotoxic and genotoxic-oxidative effects of NMs. Most have used high concentrations of NMs and mainly found cytotoxicity. The studies available on the exposure to low concentrations of engineered NMs have detected genotoxic, oxidative and inflammatory effects that may have implications in carcinogenesis; however, there is still much uncertainty, and the results are contrasting. This review examines important cyto-genotoxicity studies on NMs such as multi- and single-walled carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, metal/metal oxide nanoparticles and quantum dots, which are representative of NMs already on the market or about to enter it, and are included in the priority list of manufactured NMs issued by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The focus is particularly on studies using experimental conditions similar to occupational exposures, with implications for the health and safety of workers employing, handling and producing NMs.


Manigrasso M.,INAIL Research Area | Vernale C.,INAIL Research Area | Avino P.,INAIL Research Area
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2015

Aerosol pollution in urban environments has been recognized to be responsible for important pathologies of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this perspective, great attention has been addressed to Ultra Fine Particles (UFPs < 100 nm), because they efficiently penetrate into the respiratory system and are capable of translocating from the airways into the blood circulation. This paper describes the aerosol regional doses deposited in the human respiratory system in a high-traffic urban area. The aerosol measurements were carried out on a curbside in downtown Rome, on a street characterized by a high density of autovehicular traffic. Aerosol number-size distributions were measured by means of a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm with a 1 s time resolution. Dosimetry estimates were performed with the Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry model by means of the stochastic lung model. The exposure scenario close to traffic is represented by a sequence of short-term peak exposures: about 6.6 × 1010 particles are deposited hourly into the respiratory system. After 1 h of exposure in proximity of traffic, 1.29 × 1010, 1.88 × 1010, and 3.45 × 1010 particles are deposited in the head, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions. More than 95 % of such doses are represented by UFPs. Finally, according to the greater dose estimated, the right lung lobes are expected to be more susceptible to respiratory pathologies than the left lobes. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Avino P.,INAIL Research Area | Protano C.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Vitali M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Manigrasso M.,INAIL Research Area
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2016

It is well-known that the health effects of PM increase as particle size decreases: particularly, great concern has risen on the role of UltraFine Particles (UFPs). Starting from the knowledge that the main fraction of atmospheric aerosol in Rome is characterized by significant levels of PM2.5 (almost 75% of PM10 fraction is PM2.5), the paper is focused on submicron particles in such great urban area. The daytime/nighttime, work-/weekdays and cold/hot seasonal trends of submicron particles will be investigated and discussed along with NOx and total PAH drifts demonstrating the primary origin of UFPs from combustion processes. Furthermore, moving from these data, the total dose of submicron particles deposited in the respiratory system (i.e., head, tracheobronchial and alveolar regions in different lung lobes) has been estimated. Dosimeter estimates were performed with the Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry model (MPPD v.2.1). The paper discusses the aerosol doses deposited in the respiratory system of individuals exposed in proximity of traffic. During traffic peak hours, about 6.6 × 1010 particles are deposited into the respiratory system. Such dose is almost entirely made of UFPs. According to the greater dose estimated, right lung lobes are expected to be more susceptible to respiratory pathologies than left lobes. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Avino P.,INAIL Research Area | Manigrasso M.,INAIL Research Area
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2016

Many studies show that particle toxicity increases with decreasing their size, emphasizing the role of submicrometric particles, in particular of ultrafine particles (<100 nm). In fact, particles greater than 2.5 μm are quickly removed through dry and wet deposition on the timescale of hours whereas submicrometer particles may reside in atmosphere for weeks, penetrate in indoor environment, and be long-range transported. High aerosol size resolution measurements are important for a correct assessment of the deposition efficiency in the human respiratory system, and time resolution is another important requisite. Starting from such considerations, time-resolved aerosol particle number size distributions have been measured in downtown Rome. Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) measurements have been carried out at the INAIL’s Pilot Station, located in downtown Rome, in an area characterized by high density of autovehicular traffic. The two instruments have allowed to investigate deeply the urban aerosol in the range of 5.6–560 and 3.5–117 nm, respectively. In particular, the FMPS measurements have confirmed the interpretation about the transition phenomena in the time interval of few seconds, timescale typically associated with the emission of gasoline and diesel engines. In downtown Rome, the hourly average size distribution is bimodal or trimodal with maxima at about 5–15, 20–30, and 70–100 nm. Particle formation in the nucleation mode was associated to freshly emitted autovehicular exhaust. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


PubMed | University of Rome La Sapienza and INAIL Research Area
Type: | Journal: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) | Year: 2016

It is well-known that the health effects of PM increase as particle size decreases: particularly, great concern has risen on the role of UltraFine Particles (UFPs). Starting from the knowledge that the main fraction of atmospheric aerosol in Rome is characterized by significant levels of PM2.5 (almost 75% of PM10 fraction is PM2.5), the paper is focused on submicron particles in such great urban area. The daytime/nighttime, work-/weekdays and cold/hot seasonal trends of submicron particles will be investigated and discussed along with NOx and total PAH drifts demonstrating the primary origin of UFPs from combustion processes. Furthermore, moving from these data, the total dose of submicron particles deposited in the respiratory system (i.e., head, tracheobronchial and alveolar regions in different lung lobes) has been estimated. Dosimeter estimates were performed with the Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry model (MPPD v.2.1). The paper discusses the aerosol doses deposited in the respiratory system of individuals exposed in proximity of traffic. During traffic peak hours, about 6.610(10) particles are deposited into the respiratory system. Such dose is almost entirely made of UFPs. According to the greater dose estimated, right lung lobes are expected to be more susceptible to respiratory pathologies than left lobes.


PubMed | INAIL Research Area
Type: | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2016

Many studies show that particle toxicity increases with decreasing their size, emphasizing the role of submicrometric particles, in particular of ultrafine particles (<100nm). In fact, particles greater than 2.5m are quickly removed through dry and wet deposition on the timescale of hours whereas submicrometer particles may reside in atmosphere for weeks, penetrate in indoor environment, and be long-range transported. High aerosol size resolution measurements are important for a correct assessment of the deposition efficiency in the human respiratory system, and time resolution is another important requisite. Starting from such considerations, time-resolved aerosol particle number size distributions have been measured in downtown Rome. Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) measurements have been carried out at the INAILs Pilot Station, located in downtown Rome, in an area characterized by high density of autovehicular traffic. The two instruments have allowed to investigate deeply the urban aerosol in the range of 5.6-560 and 3.5-117nm, respectively. In particular, the FMPS measurements have confirmed the interpretation about the transition phenomena in the time interval of few seconds, timescale typically associated with the emission of gasoline and diesel engines. In downtown Rome, the hourly average size distribution is bimodal or trimodal with maxima at about 5-15, 20-30, and 70-100nm. Particle formation in the nucleation mode was associated to freshly emitted autovehicular exhaust.

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