Andreuccetti D.,CNR Institute of Applied Physics Nello Carrara |
Contessa G.M.,INAIL |
Falsaperla R.,INAIL |
Lodato R.,ENEA |
And 3 more authors.
Medical Physics | Year: 2013
Purpose: A procedure for assessing occupational exposure due to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gradient magnetic fields and movement-induced effects in the static magnetic field is proposed and tested. Methods: The procedure was based on the application of the weighted-peak method in time domain. It was tested in two 1.5 T total-body and one 3 T head-only scanner MRI facilities in Rome (Italy). Exposure due to switched gradient fields was evaluated in locations inside the magnet room where operators usually stay during particular medical procedures (e.g., cardiac examinations of anesthetized patients); MRI sequences were selected to approach as far as possible a representative worst case exposure scenario. Movement-induced effects were evaluated considering the actual movements of volunteer operators during work activity, by measuring the perceived time-varying magnetic field by a head-worn probe. The analysis of results was based on ICNIRP 1998 and 2010 guidelines, following a weighted-peak approach and including an ad hoc extension to the latter ones, needed to verify compliance in the frequency range 0-1 Hz. Results: Exposures due to switched gradient fields in 1.5 T MRI scanners mostly resulted noncompliant with ICNIRP 1998 occupational reference levels, being, at the same time, always compliant with ICNIRP 2010 ones. Gradient field levels and ICNIRP indexes were significantly lower for the 3 T unit, due to its small dimensions, as that unit was a head-only scanner. Movement-induced effects resulted potentially noncompliant only in the case the operator moved the head inside the bore of a 1.5 T scanner. Conclusions: The procedure had proven to be a sound approach to exposure assessment in MRI. Its testing allowed to draw some general considerations about exposures to gradient magnetic fields and movement-induced effects. © 2013 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Pandola L.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy |
Andenna C.,INAIL |
Caccia B.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2015
Abstract The bremsstrahlung spectra produced by electrons impinging on thick targets are simulated using the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit. Simulations are validated against experimental data available in literature for a range of energy between 0.5 and 2.8 MeV for Al and Fe targets and for a value of energy of 70 keV for Al, Ag, W and Pb targets. The energy spectra for the different configurations of emission angles, energies and targets are considered. Simulations are performed by using the three alternative sets of electromagnetic models that are available in Geant4 to describe bremsstrahlung. At higher energies (0.5-2.8 MeV) of the impinging electrons on Al and Fe targets, Geant4 is able to reproduce the spectral shapes and the integral photon emission in the forward direction. The agreement is within 10-30%, depending on energy, emission angle and target material. The physics model based on the Penelope Monte Carlo code is in slightly better agreement with the measured data than the other two. However, all models over-estimate the photon emission in the backward hemisphere. For the lower energy study (70 keV), which includes higher-Z targets, all models systematically under-estimate the total photon yield, providing agreement between 10% and 50%. The results of this work are of potential interest for medical physics applications, where knowledge of the energy spectra and angular distributions of photons is needed for accurate dose calculations with Monte Carlo and other fluence-based methods. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lidonnici F.,SantAmbrogio Servizi Industriali S.R.L |
Delle Site C.,INAIL
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Pressure Vessels and Piping Division (Publication) PVP | Year: 2015
Tubesheets are usually designed according to different national or international design codes. The great majority of these standards is based on Gardner's theory, elaborated more than 60 years ago. On the other hand these pressure components are critical in heat exchanger design, because they are subject to characteristic service damages which require a correct dimensioning and appropriate inspections during service. This paper is aimed at comparing the different design methods, analyzing the theoretical background behind the rules. Main focus is made to the alternative design method contained in Annex J of the European Standard EN13445-3. With reference to the typical configuration of a fixed tubesheet exchanger with flanged connections, the results of the different design approaches are compared in order to find out the optimal configuration. Benchmark examples are carried out using a commercial computer code with reference to heat exchangers with the tubesheets welded to the shell and bolted to the channel. The results show the advantage of using Annex J which allows smaller thicknesses of the tubesheet in respect of the conventional approach used by TEMA, ASME Section VIII and EN 13445-3 clause 13. Copyright © 2015 by ASME.
Riccardi C.,INAIL |
Di Filippo P.,INAIL |
Pomata D.,INAIL |
Di Basilio M.,INAIL |
And 2 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013
The present paper deals with identification of hydrocarbon sources in contaminated soil of three tank farms located in north, central and south Italy. Parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene through benzo(g,h,i)perylene) and n-alkanes (n-C10 through n-C36) were determined. The study of source assignments was carried out by their distribution patterns, their diagnostic ratios, and determination of less-commonly used markers. The data show anthropogenic and biogenic origin of n-alkanes and petrogenic and pyrolytic sources of PAHs. Multiple sources of hydrocarbons, that were not considered in the preliminary environmental assessments, are identified. The application of a multi-criteria approach allows to locate petroleum pollution sources that affect the study sites. The results demonstrate that the application of a multi-criteria approach for source identification is a key point to assess environmental damage and prove that an accurate study of source identification has to be performed. The suggested methodology is a useful tool to manage contaminated sites and to plan appropriate interventions of clean up. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Clemente M.,INAIL |
Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro ed Ergonomia | Year: 2012
The authors analyze the budget accident at work and occupational diseases in the construction industry through the data banks Inail. This analysis is carried out by comparing the data for this sector of economic activity (classification of economic activities ATECO 2002) with those general with particular attention to how an event, occurrence, mortality, by plotting the trends of this phenomenon than in previous years. It also analyzes the phenomenon of the complaints of occupational diseases with the comparison with the general data as well as with the analysis of the most frequent types of occupational diseases in this sector in the last two years. © PI-ME, Pavia 2012.
Beolchini F.,Marche Polytechnic University |
Fonti V.,Marche Polytechnic University |
Rocchetti L.,Marche Polytechnic University |
Saraceni G.,Marche Polytechnic University |
And 2 more authors.
Chemistry and Ecology | Year: 2013
This study deals with laboratory-scale investigations to evaluate the efficiency of different chemical leaching agents (i.e. sulfuric, oxalic and citric acids) and bioleaching processes (based on different acidophilic bacterial strains) on the mobilisation of metals/semi-metals in contaminated harbour sediments. A simplified life-cycle assessment was also performed in order to compare the investigated strategies in terms of their main environmental impacts. The different chemical leaching agents provided different extraction efficiencies of toxic metals. Among the investigated chemical leaching agents, citric acid 0.5 M and sulfuric acid pH 2 were the most effective, with average mobilisation efficiencies of ∼30% for Zn and Cr, ∼40% for Ni, and 35 and 58% for As, under citric and sulfuric acid, respectively. Similar higher extraction efficiencies of metals were also observed in bioleaching experiments with the presence of ferrous iron. The life-cycle assessment revealed that treatments based on diluted sulfuric acid are a better option considering both resource requirements and emissions, leading to lower environmental impacts compared with the other treatment strategies. Overall results from this study provide new insights for the definition of the most efficient and environmentally friendly strategies to be used for dredged sediments contaminated with metals. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Del Gaudio M.,INAIL
Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro ed Ergonomia | Year: 2015
Many workers are exposed to direct solar radiation. In these conditions the workers may suffer damage to health due to an excessive increase in body temperature, or to the loss of liquids. Were carried out tests to determine if the use of screens made of various materials can reduce the physiological effects. Using the indexes WBGT and PHS were calculated the internal body temperature and the amount of fluids lost, before and after use of the screen. The best screens were those made of cardboard, newspaper paper and beach umbrellas. © PI-ME, Pavia 2015.
Sergi M.,University of Teramo |
Montesano C.,University of Rome La Sapienza |
Odoardi S.,University of Rome La Sapienza |
Mainero Rocca L.,University of Rome La Sapienza |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2013
The evaluation of oral fluids (OFs) levels is useful in proving drug consumption, particularly for monitoring abuse in workplaces and for the driving under the influence of drugs (DUIDs) programs. OF is a complex matrix and a small amount of sample is available, especially after cannabis smoking. This paper reports a method for the determination of cannabinoids and metabolites in OF: THC, 11-hydroxy-THC (OH-THC) and THC-COOH. Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) were also detected by LC-MS/MS. The OF pre-treatment was based on micro-extraction by packed sorbent (MEPS), a recently developed solid phase extraction technique which operates with small sample volumes: only 125μL of sample was required, allowing the collection by simple expectoration. Analytes elution was achieved using 2×25μL of 50mM NH4OH in methanol. A rapid and effective clean-up has been obtained with satisfactory recovery values and a negligible matrix effect. The LOQs ranged between 0.020ngmL-1 for THC-COOH and 0.40ngmL-1 for OH-THC. The chromatographic conditions obtained with a fused-core column allowed a good separation of the analytes in 6min only. The whole procedure has been validated according to SOFT/AAFS guidelines. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Finotti E.,Italian Agricultural Research Council |
Bersani E.,University of Rome La Sapienza |
Del Prete E.,INAIL |
Friedman M.,Albany Research Center
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2015
In the present study, we extend the concept of a functional mathematical index (FMI), introduced in previous publications, for the assessment and prediction of food quality and safety of jujube fruit, a medicinal food widely consumed in Asian countries. In this study the index has been applied to one field-grown jujube fruit harvested at eight stages of maturity and three commercial Korean jujube cultivars. The index allows quantitative evaluation of nutritional, health-promoting, and safety aspects based on reported essential amino acid and phenolic content and antioxidative and cancer-cell-inhibiting activities of the test substances. For example, the FMI values for the antioxidative capacities ranged from 0.36 to 0.87 and for the inhibition normal and cancer cells from 0.35 to 0.86, suggesting that consumers have a choice of selecting growth (maturity) stages of jujube fruit with optimum beneficial properties. The use of specific performance FMI values seems to be a better tool for predicting relative beneficial and adverse effects than prediction on the basis of concentrations of the nutritional and bioactive compounds. The FMI approach, that numerically scores compositional, nutritional, and health-related aspects of food, complements but does not replace standard statistical analysis of the original compositional analytical data from which this value is derived. The method can be used to detect critical points during growth and processing of food that make it possible to optimize nutritional and health benefits. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Pietrangeli B.,INAIL |
Lauri R.,INAIL |
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2013
This paper presents a few results of a work aiming at providing the biogas industry with practical tools to protect workers and environment. Biological contamination, Fire and Explosive Atmosphere are the main hazards. The technical and organizational measures, aiming at preventing or mitigating them, have been identified and classified by means of the "bowties" technique. From this analysis, a structured safety check list has been derived. The checklist is a valuable support for the plant operator to evaluate periodically the actual effectiveness of the overall safety measures and to address a safer management of the plant. Copyright © 2013, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.