Naciri M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Reperant J.M.,ANSES |
Fort G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Crespin J.,IN VIVO NSA |
And 2 more authors.
Avian Pathology | Year: 2011
The aim of the present work was, after a coccidiosis outbreak in a farm rearing red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) in Brittany (France), to identify the Eimeria species and describe gross lesions induced by three of them (Eimeria kofoidi, Eimeria caucasica and Eimeria legionensis) after experimental infection. E. kofoidi oocysts measured 19.3 μm×16.3 μm on average; neither micropyle nor oocyst residuum were present, but one, two or more small polar granules were visible. After inoculation of 300,000 oocysts per partridge, severe gross lesions were observed in the duodenum and jejunum, characterized by thickened oedematous mucosa and lumen filled with thick mucus, gas and sometimes false-membrane due to sloughed epithelium. E. caucasica oocysts were on average 29.8 μm×19.5 μm in size; no oocyst residuum was observed, but a large granule was well visible. E. caucasica also invaded both the duodenum and jejunum, causing haemorrhagic points on the serosal surface, as well as mucoid duodenitis and catarrhal enteritis when 30,000 oocysts were inoculated per bird. E. legionensis oocysts measured 22.6 μm×14.9 μm on average; they presented a clear micropyle beneath which one or two granulations were present. E. legionensis mainly invaded the caeca; low mortality was observed at the dosage of 200,000 oocysts per bird. Caecal walls were thickened and caseous material was condensed into off-white cheesy cores. For each species, oocyst shedding started 5 days post inoculation, peaked at 9, 8 and 6 days post inoculation for E. kofoidi, E. caucasica and E. legionensis, respectively, then decreased and persisted until 15 days post inoculation (end of examinations). © 2011 Houghton Trust Ltd.
Benzoni G.,In Vivo NSA |
Foresti F.,DVM |
Archetti I.L.,Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Lombardia Emilia Romagna |
Coceva G.,GKL |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2013
The transfer of passive immunity from sows to piglets is important and it is the first immune protection of the new born piglet. Improving sows immunity by adding immuno-stimulating product in sows diet can positively affect colostrum composition and transfer of immune molecules to piglets. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the benefit of a different solution, made of specific fatty acids from marine origin that have been used in human medicine for decades, for sows and piglets. Two trials were conducted in commercial farm, involving 240 sows at different periods of the year. Sows were divided in a control group, without supplementation, and a test group, supplemented with the feed additive from the 90th day of gestation to weaning. Sows body condition, piglets viability and growth were recorded. Milk immunoglobulin content was measured, as well as Aujeszky antibodies in sows and piglets blood as marker of specific immunity, and blood bactericidal activity, complement activity and lysozyme as markers of non specific immunity. No effect of the product was observed on piglets zootechnical criteria and specific immunity parameters but significant improvement of piglet non specific immunity, was observed. No difference was observed neither in the piglets blood PRRSV and PCV2 antibodies and viruses nor in Aujeszky antibodies. Blood complement activity seems to be an accurate indicator of immuno-stimulating additive efficiency. Giving alkyl-glycerol fatty acids to sows in late gestation and lactation can improve the passive immunity transfer to piglets. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Hydrolysed wheat gluten as part of a diet based on animal and plant proteins supports good growth performance of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer), without impairing intestinal morphology or microbiota
Apper E.,Tereos |
Weissman D.,In Vivo NSA |
Respondek F.,Tereos |
Guyonvarch A.,British Petroleum |
And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2016
A trial was conducted to determine the effect of 6% hydrolysed wheat gluten (HWG) inclusion in a low-fishmeal diet on growth performance and intestinal microbiota and morphology of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). Fish (initial average weight of 36.3. g) were allocated into floating cages (eight replicates per diet, 30 fish per cage). They were fed either a fishmeal-based diet (positive, diet code: POS; 36% fishmeal), or a diet based on a mix of animal and plant proteins (negative, diet code: NEG). The fishmeal inclusion rate in this diet was reduced to 6%, with the major protein sources being soybean meal and animal by-products. The third diet (diet code: HWG) was similar to the NEG diet with the exception that 6% HWG was included in replacement of the other proteins. At the end of the 48. day trial, fish were sampled for intestinal microbiology and histology. Growth parameters were also assessed. Final body weight, SGR and daily feed intake were not significantly different across diets. However, the feeding rate was significantly affected, with the lowest rate observed in the POS treatment and the highest with the NEG treatment. The FCR was significantly lower for both POS and HWG fed fish than for the NEG fed fish. High throughput sequencing revealed that the majority of reads derived from the mucosa samples belonged to members of Proteobacteria (70.3% of the reads), Cyanobacteria (10.0%) and Firmicutes (7.6%). In the digesta reads were mainly assigned to Proteobacteria (34.5%), Fusobacteria (34.5%), and Firmicutes (22.6%). The alpha diversity did not differ among dietary treatments. Some differences in OTU relative abundances were obtained between diets, however, the overall community was not modified to a large extent by HWG. Histological appraisal revealed that the HWG fed fish exhibited significantly higher posterior intestinal perimeter ratio than that of the POS treatment. Overall, including HWG in a low fishmeal diet positively affects feed efficiency. Concomitantly the absorptive surface area of the posterior intestine was improved while the intestinal microbiota, described comprehensively here for the first time in Asian seabass, was similar to the microbiota of other healthy carnivorous marine fish species. The mechanisms involved in these changes may be related to the high glutamine content and to the high protein digestibility of HWG. Statement of relevance: Fishmeal used to be the major source of proteins, especially for marine fish and salmonids. Nevertheless, its inclusion in diets has been reduced. Some commercial fish feeds may contain less than 10% fishmeal, largely replaced by a mix of animal and plant proteins. Our manuscript demonstrates that hydrolysed wheat gluten may be used to formulate high quality low fishmeal diets. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Philippeau C.,British Petroleum |
Sadet-Bourgeteau S.,British Petroleum |
Varloud M.,In Vivo NSA |
Julliand V.,British Petroleum
Animal | Year: 2015
This study aimed at assessing the impact of four barley forms on total tract apparent digestibility of dietary fibre in horses fed a large amount of starch in the morning meal (0.27% BW). Processed barley forms had a greater pre-caecal starch digestibility than the whole form. Based on this result, we hypothesised that using barley-processing methods would limit the potential dumping of undegraded starch in the hindgut of horses and, consequently, the potential negative effect on fibre degradation in the hindgut. In a 4×4 latin square design, four mature geldings fitted with a right ventral colon-fistula were fed a meadow hay : concentrate (62 : 38; dry matter (DM) basis) diet at 1.7% BW. The concentrate was made of 80% barley distributed either as whole grain or as processed forms: 2.5 mm ground, pelleted or steam-flaked. For each period, total tract apparent digestibilities of DM, NDF and ADF were determined over 3 consecutive days by total faecal collection, whereas pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations and cultural functional bacteria counts (total anaerobic, cellulolytic bacteria, lactic acid producers, amylolytic bacteria and lactic acid utilisers) in colonic content were evaluated on 1 day 4 h after the morning meal. Total tract apparent digestibility of DM and dietary fibre was influenced (P<0.05) by barley form. Diets including thermo-mechanically treated barley forms led to a higher (P<0.05) total tract apparent digestibility of NDF than those constituted of ground barley and also led to a greater (P<0.05) total tract apparent digestibility of ADF than those made of whole or ground barley forms. However, no significant difference was observed in colonic pH, VFA concentrations and cultural bacteria concentrations. Owing to a high starch supply in the morning meal, the concentration of the functional bacteria in the colonic content averaged 7.8 log CFU/ml, 5.9 NPM/ml, 6.9 and 7.3 CFU/ml for total anaerobic, cellulolytic, amylolytic and lactic acid-utilising bacteria, respectively. Consequently, providing horses with pelleted or steam-flaked instead of ground barley forms may limit the negative impact of starch on fibre digestibility in horses fed a high level of starch in the morning meal (0.27% BW). Moreover, the fibre-to-starch ratio fed in this experiment did not cause any digestive upset. © The Animal Consortium 2015
Naciri M.,University of Tours |
Fort G.,University of Tours |
Briant J.,IN VIVO NSA |
Duperray J.,IN VIVO NSA |
Benzoni G.,IN VIVO NSA
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2014
Little is known about Eimeria-induced coccidiosis in partridges. After a coccidiosis outbreak in a farm rearing red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) in Brittany (France), three Eimeria species were identified as Eimeria kofoidi, Eimeria caucasica and Eimeria legionensis. This study aimed to reproduce the effects of the disease occurring in field conditions, in the absence of preventive treatments, to further build a coccidiosis model, helpful for coccidiostatic development. The pathogenic effects of a single infection with Eimeria kofoidi, E. caucasica and E. legionensis were evaluated, as well as the effects of multiple infections associating two or three of these species in red-legged partridges. Thirty-one-day-old birds were individually inoculated with Eimeria spp. and clinically followed up until 49 days of age. Mortality, lesion scores, daily oocyst production and growth were used as assessment criteria. Single infections with 250,000 E. kofoidi, 30,000 E. caucasica or 100,000 E. legionensis oocysts did not increase mortality rate compared to uninfected birds, whereas the combination of 3 species caused significant 28% mortality (P<. 0.05). Five days post inoculation, lesions scores in the proximal intestine (duodenum/jejunum) decreased in dual-infected birds and tended to decrease in triple-infected birds compared to lesions in mono-infected birds. The highest caecal lesion score was recorded in birds co-infected with E. kofoidi and E. legionensis. In multi-infected birds, the total number of oocysts excreted per gram of faeces was lower than the sum of oocysts excreted by mono-infected birds. Each single infection caused significant growth depression and even weight loss in E. legionensis infected birds (P<. 0.05). Dual or triple infections worsened this effect. Eighteen days post inoculation, only mono-infected birds had recovered. Their weight gains were not different from that of uninfected birds, whereas growth was significantly depressed in dual-infected birds, notably in co-infected E. kofoidi and E. legionensis birds and worsened in triple-infected birds (-34% and -78% growth depression, respectively). Our results indicate that the oocyst doses used were suitable in single infections or should be slightly reduced for future studies requiring significant growth retardation (about 25%). In mixed-infections, the effects on growth are considerably increased; therefore, oocyst doses must be reduced, approximately 125,000 E. kofoidi+. 15,000 E. caucasica+. 50,000 E. legionensis oocysts can be recommended. The study model presented here is valuable to conduct further research such as for assessing the ability of these birds to mount immune response against Eimeria spp. or for selecting efficient molecules to struggle coccidiosis of red-legged partridges. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Philippeau C.,Uranie |
Varloud M.,In Vivo NSA |
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014
To determine prececal starch digestibility and estimate glucose uptake from the digestion of 4 forms of barley in the small intestine, 4 mature cecally fistulated geldings (449 ± 41 kg BW) fed a 62:38 (wt/wt) meadow hay:concentrate diet at 1.7 kg DM/100 kg BW were included in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment. During each period, horses received 80% DM of their concentrate as 1 of the 4 forms of a same batch of barley, whole grain, 2.5 mm ground, steam flaked, and pelleted. Hay was offered in 2 equal meals and concentrate in 2 unequal meals. The starch supply in the morning meal amounted 2.7 g starch/kg BW. At each period, mobile bag DM and starch disappearance was determined. Except for ground barley, each form of barley was 4 mm ground before being introduced in the bag. Nylon bags containing each substrate were intubated in the horse receiving the pelleted barley. Bags were collected in the cecum for 10 h postintubation. At each period, postprandial glycemia was measured on blood samples collected on the 4 horses via an indwelling jugular catheter just before the concentrate morning meal and for 8 h. No hay in the morning meal was given the day of the measurements. Whole blood glucose was analyzed with a portable blood glucose meter. Mobile bag prececal DM disappearance and starch disappearance depended (P < 0.01) on barley form. Prececal starch disappearance of whole barley was the lowest but no difference (P > 0.05) was detected among the 3 processed grains. No significant effect of barley form was found whatever the glycemic parameters. No significant correlation was reported between glycemic parameters and the amount of prececal mobile bag disappeared starch calculated as the starch intake in the morning meal by the mobile bag starch disappearance. To conclude, the whole form of barley exhibited the lowest prececal mobile bag starch disappearance whereas, in relationship with large individual variations, no significant variation has been shown in glycemic parameters. Further investigations should be performed to improve methods for estimating prececal starch digestion of processed cereals in the different digestive segments of horses. © 2014 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.