Tervonen T.A.,University of Helsinki |
Partanen J.I.,University of Helsinki |
Saarikoski S.T.,University of Helsinki |
Myllynen M.,University of Helsinki |
And 6 more authors.
Advances in Cancer Research | Year: 2011
Epithelial architecture is formed in tissues and organs when groups of epithelial cells are organized into polarized structures. The epithelial function and integrity as well as signaling across the epithelial layer is orchestrated by apical junctional complexes (AJCs), which are landmarks for PAR/CRUMBS and lateral SCRIB polarity modules and by dynamic interactions of the cells with underlying basement membrane (BM). These highly organized epithelial architectures are demolished in cancer. In all advanced epithelial cancers, malignant cells have lost polarity and connections to the basement membrane and they have become proliferative, motile, and invasive. Clearly, loss of epithelial integrity associates with tumor progression but does it contribute to tumor development? Evidence from studies in Drosophila and recently also in vertebrate models have suggested that even the oncogene-driven enforced cell proliferation can be conditional, dependant on the influence of cell-cell or cell-microenvironment contacts. Therefore, loss of epithelial integrity may not only be an obligate consequence of unscheduled proliferation of malignant cells but instead, malignant epithelial cells may need to acquire capacity to break free from the constraints of integrity to freely and autonomously proliferate. We discuss how epithelial polarity complexes form and regulate epithelial integrity, highlighting the roles of enzymes Rho GTPases, aPKCs, PI3K, and type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs). We also discuss relevance of these pathways to cancer in light of genetic alterations found in human cancers and review molecular pathways and potential pharmacological strategies to revert or selectively eradicate disorganized tumor epithelium. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source
Lim J.,3 Avenue Louis Pasteur |
Altman M.D.,3 Avenue Louis Pasteur |
Baker J.,3 Avenue Louis Pasteur |
Brubaker J.D.,3 Avenue Louis Pasteur |
And 15 more authors.
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2015
Interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) is an essential signal transducer downstream of the IL-1R and TLR superfamily, and selective inhibition of the kinase activity of the protein represents an attractive target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. A series of 5-amino-N-(1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-3-carboxamides was developed via sequential modifications to the 5-position of the pyrazolopyrimidine ring and the 3-position of the pyrazole ring. Replacement of substituents responsible for poor permeability and improvement of physical properties guided by cLogD led to the identification of IRAK4 inhibitors with excellent potency, kinase selectivity, and pharmacokinetic properties suitable for oral dosing. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source
Imbriglio J.E.,000 Galloping Hill Road |
Shen D.-M.,000 Galloping Hill Road |
Liang R.,000 Galloping Hill Road |
Marby K.,000 Galloping Hill Road |
And 27 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015
DGAT2 plays a critical role in hepatic triglyceride production, and data suggests that inhibition of DGAT2 could prove to be beneficial in treating a number of disease states. This article documents the discovery and optimization of a selective small molecule inhibitor of DGAT2 as well as pharmacological proof of biology in a mouse model of triglyceride production. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source
McElroy W.T.,Discovery Chemistry |
Tan Z.,Discovery Chemistry |
Ho G.,Discovery Chemistry |
Paliwal S.,Discovery Chemistry |
And 14 more authors.
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2015
IRAK4 is a critical upstream kinase in the IL-1R/TLR signaling pathway. Inhibition of IRAK4 is hypothesized to be beneficial in the treatment of autoimmune related disorders. A screening campaign identified a pyrazole class of IRAK4 inhibitors that were determined by X-ray crystallography to exhibit an unusual binding mode. SAR efforts focused on the identification of a potent and selective inhibitor with good aqueous solubility and rodent pharmacokinetics. Pyrazole C-3 piperidines were well tolerated, with N-sulfonyl analogues generally having good rodent oral exposure but poor solubility. N-Alkyl piperidines exhibited excellent solubility and reduced exposure. Pyrazoles possessing N-1 pyridine and fluorophenyl substituents were among the most active. Piperazine 32 was a potent enzyme inhibitor with good cellular activity. Compound 32 reduced the in vivo production of proinflammatory cytokines and was orally efficacious in a mouse antibody induced arthritis disease model of inflammation. (Chemical Equation Presented). © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source