Mogi Mirim, Brazil
Mogi Mirim, Brazil

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Morotti F.,State University Londrina | Sanches B.V.,In Vitro Brazil Ltda | Pontes J.H.F.,In Vitro Brazil Ltda | Basso A.C.,In Vitro Brazil Ltda | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2014

Obtaining sexed sperm from previously frozen doses (reverse-sorted semen [RSS]) provides an important advantage because of the possibility of using the semen of bulls with desired genetic attributes that have died or have become infertile but from whom frozen semen is available. We report the efficiency of RSS on the pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves in a large-scale program using ovum pick-up and in vitro embryo production (IVEP) from Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle. From 645 ovum pick-up procedures (Holstein, Gir, and Nelore), 9438 viable oocytes were recovered. A dose of frozen semen (Holstein, Nelore, Brahman, Gir, and Braford) was thawed, and the sperm were sex-sorted and cooled for use in IVF. Additionally, IVF with sperm from three Holstein bulls with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted (RSS) or sex-sorted, freeze-thawed (control) was tested. A total of 2729 embryos were produced, exhibiting a mean blastocyst rate of 29%. Heifers and cows selected for adequate body condition, estrus, and health received 2404 embryos, and 60 days later, a 41% average pregnancy rate was observed. A total of 966 calves were born, and 910 were of a predetermined sex, with an average of 94% accuracy in determining the sex. Despite the lower blastocyst rate with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted semen compared with sex-sorted semen, (P < 0.05), the pregnancy rate (bull I, 45% vs. 40%; II, 35% vs. 50%; and III, 47% vs. 48% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) and sex-sorted efficiency (bull I, 93% vs. 98%; II, 96% vs. 94%; and III, 96% vs. 97% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) were similar for each of the three bulls regardless of the sperm type used in the IVF. The sexing of previously frozen semen, associated with IVEP, produces viable embryos with a pregnancy rate of up to 40%, and calves of the desired sex are born even if the paternal bull has acquired some infertility, died, or is located a long distance from the sexing laboratory. Furthermore, these data show the feasibility of the process even when used in a large-scale IVEP program. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Ferreira C.R.,University of Campinas | Saraiva S.A.,University of Campinas | Catharino R.R.,University of Campinas | Garcia J.S.,University of Campinas | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Lipid Research | Year: 2010

Methods used for lipid analysis in embryos and oocytes usually involve selective lipid extraction from a pool of many samples followed by chemical manipulation, separation and characterization of individual components by chromatographic techniques. Herein we report direct analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) of single and intact embryos or oocytes from various species. Biological samples were simply moisturized with the matrix solution and characteristic lipid (represented by phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and triacylglycerols) profi les were obtained via MALDI-MS. As representative examples, human, bovine, sheep and fi sh oocytes, as well as bovine and insect embryos were analyzed. MALDI-MS is shown to be capable of providing characteristic lipid profi les of gametes and embryos and also to respond to modifi cations due to developmental stages and in vitro culture conditions of bovine embryos. Investigation in developmental biology of the biological roles of structural and reserve lipids in embryos and oocytes should therefore benefi t from these rapid MALDI-MS profi les from single and intact species. -Ferreira, C. R., S. A. Saraiva, R. R. Catharino, J. S. Garcia, F. C. Gozzo, G. B. Sanvido, L. F. A. Santos, E. G. Lo Turco, J. H. F. Pontes, A. C. Basso, R. P. Bertolla, R. Sartori, M. M. Guardieiro, F. Perecin, F. V. Meirelles, J. R. Sangalli, and M. N. Eberlin. Single embryo and oocyte lipid fi ngerprinting by mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

PubMed | Embryo Sys, Genese Company, In Vitro Brazil Ltda, University of Sao Paulo and Ceva Sante Animale
Type: | Journal: Domestic animal endocrinology | Year: 2015

This study evaluated the association between plasma anti-Mllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations and in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus (Nelore; experiment 1) and Bos taurus (Holstein; experiment 2) calves superstimulated or not with 140 mg of porcine follicle-stimulating hormone (pFSH; 4 decreasing doses twice daily). Oocytes were recovered from calves aged 2 to 4 mo after receiving gonadotropin stimulation (Nelore, n = 15; Holstein, n = 12) or not (Nelore, n = 15; Holstein, n = 12). Cycling heifers formed a positive control group (n = 15 for Nelore [aged 18-24 mo], n = 10 for Holstein [aged 14-16 mo]). All the calves underwent laparoscopic ovum pickup, and cycling heifers underwent a regular transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovum pickup for oocyte recovery. Immediately before oocyte retrieval, blood samples were taken for subsequent AMH determination (ng/mL). Regardless of the genetic group, calves that received pFSH (3.6 1.1 in Nelore and 4.6 1.2 in Holstein) or did not receive pFSH (3.2 1.0 in Nelore and 2.5 0.8 in Holstein) had greater plasma AMH concentrations (P = 0.01 in Nelore and P = 0.003 in Holstein) than cycling heifers (1.1 0.2 in Nelore and 0.6 0.07 in Holstein). AMH concentrations in calves with or without pFSH were similar in both genetic groups (3.6 1.1 vs 3.2 1.0 in Nelore; 4.6 1.2 vs 2.5 0.8 in Holstein). In calves, positive correlations were observed between plasma AMH concentrations and the numbers of follicles >2 mm (r = 0.86, P < 0.0001 in Nelore; r = 0.78, P < 0.0001 in Holstein), cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) retrieved (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001 in Nelore; r = 0.82, P < 0.0001 in Holstein), COCs cultured (r = 0.71, P < 0.0001 in Nelore; r = 0.79, P < 0.0001 in Holstein), and blastocysts produced (r = 0.62, P = 0.0003 in Nelore; r = 0.58, P = 0.009 in Holstein), and these results were independent of pFSH treatment. In conclusion, calves had greater plasma AMH concentrations than cycling heifers. In addition, treatment with pFSH did not influence AMH concentrations in calves, regardless of the genetic group. More importantly, plasma AMH concentrations were positively correlated with the antral follicle population and the number of COCs retrieved, COCs cultured, and blastocysts produced in B indicus and B taurus calves. Therefore, AMH is a promising tool for selecting oocyte donor calves to maximize results during in vitro embryo production.

PubMed | In Vitro Brazil Ltda and State University Londrina
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene | Year: 2015

The pregnancy rates obtained after the transfer of cryopreserved in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos are usually low and/or inconsistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rates of Holstein, Gyr and Holstein Gyr cattle after the transfer of vitrified IVP embryos produced with X-sorted sperm. Seventy-two Gyr and 703 Holstein females were subjected to ovum pickup (OPU) sessions, followed by in vitro embryo production using semen from sires of the same breeds. Embryos (1636 Holstein, 241 Gyr and 1515 Holstein Gyr) were exposed to forskolin for 48 h prior to vitrification. The pregnancy rate achieved with Gyr dam and sire was 46.1%, which was similar (p = 0.11) to that of Holstein dam and Gyr sire (40.3%). Crossing Gyr dams with Holstein sires resulted in a pregnancy rate of 38.9% and did not differ (p = 0.58) from the pregnancy rate obtained with the cross between Holstein dams and Gyr sires. The rate obtained with Holstein dam and sire was 32.5%. The average pregnancy rate was 36.6%, and no difference was found in the proportion of female foetuses (88.8%, in average) among breeds (p > 0.05). In conclusion, transfer of cryopreserved X-sorted embryos represents an interesting choice for dairy cattle. Despite the small differences between pregnancy rates, we highlight the efficiency of this strategy for all of the racial groups studied.

PubMed | Federal University of Minas Gerais, In Vitro Brazil Ltda and State University Londrina
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2016

Artificial insemination and invitro embryo production are powerful tools for disseminating superior genetic qualities and improving the reproductive performance of dairy and beef cattle. In conjunction with these biotechnologies, sexed-sorted semen has been used to obtain offspring of a predetermined sex. This study compared the pregnancy rates obtained using invitro fertilization/timed embryo transfer (IVF/TET) and timed artificial insemination (TAI), both performed using sexed-sorted (Y-chromosome-bearing) semen obtained from the same bull. For the invitro embryo production, the ovaries of 250 Nelore cows with known histories were collected in the slaughterhouse and used for IVF. After evaluation of the recipients (IVF/TET group; n=974), the resultant embryos were transferred to the females with corpus luteum (n=822). The pregnancy-related data for this group were compared with those for the TAI group (n=974). Ultrasonography was performed at 60days to determine the pregnancy status and confirm the sex of the fetus. Atotal of 2008 oocytes produced 1050 embryos, with 52% of them reaching the blastocyst stage. The pregnancy rate and the accuracy in determining the fetal sex were 35.4% (345/974) and 95.07% (328/345), respectively, for the IVF/TET group and 30% (293/974; P<0.05) and 94.88% (278/293), respectively, for the TAI group. In the present study, we concluded that male calves could be better obtained using IVF/TET rather than TAI; therefore, this strategy can be considered to increase the pregnancy rate of beef cattle.

Pontes J.H.F.,Laboratorio Of Reproducao Animal | Pontes J.H.F.,In Vitro Brazil Ltda | Silva K.C.F.,Laboratorio Of Reproducao Animal | Basso A.C.,In Vitro Brazil Ltda | And 11 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2010

Herein we describe a large-scale commercial program for in vitro production of embryos from dairy Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and indicus-taurus donors, using sexed sperm. From 5,407 OPU, we compared the number of recovered oocytes (n = 90,086), viable oocytes (n = 64,826), and embryos produced in vitro from Gir (Bos indicus, n = 617), Holstein (Bos taurus, n = 180), 1/4 Holstein × 3/4 Gir (n = 44), and 1/2 Holstein-Gir (n = 37) crossbred cows, and the pregnancy rate of recipient cows. Viable oocytes were in vitro matured (24 h at 38.8 °C, 5% CO 2 in air) and fertilized by incubating them for 18 to 20 h with frozen-thawed sexed sperm (X-chromosome bearing) from Gir (n = 8) or Holstein (n = 7) sires (2 × 10 6 sperm/dose). Embryos were cultured in similar conditions of temperature and atmosphere as for IVM, with variable intervals of culture (between Days 2 and 5) completed in a portable incubator. All embryos were transferred fresh, after 24 to 72 h of transportation (up to 2,000 km). On average, 16.7 ± 6.3 oocytes (mean ± SEM) were obtained per OPU procedure and 72.0% were considered viable. Total and viable oocytes per OPU procedure were 17.1 ± 4.5 and 12.1 ± 3.9 for Gir cows, 11.4 ± 3.9 and 8.0 ± 2.7 for Holstein cows, 20.4 ± 5.8 and 16.8 ± 5.0 for 1/4 Holstein × 3/4 Gir, and 31.4 ± 5.6 and 24.3 ± 4.7 for 1/2 Holstein-Gir crossbred females (P < 0.01). The mean number of embryos produced by OPU/IVF and the pregnancy rates were 3.2 (12,243/ 3,778) and 40% for Gir cows, 2.1 (2,426/1,138) and 36% for Holstein cows, 3.9 (1,033/267) and 37% for 1/4 Holstein × 3/4 Gir, and 5.5 (1,222/224), and 37% for 1/2 Holstein-Gir. In conclusion, we compared oocyte yield from two levels of indicus-taurus breeds and demonstrated the efficiency of sexed sperm for in vitro embryo production. Culturing embryos during long distance transportation was successful, with potential for international movement of embryos. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

PubMed | In vitro Brazil SA, Federal University of Pelotas and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Type: | Journal: Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.) | Year: 2015

In vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) protocols can be improved by adding chemical supplements to the culture media. Tretinoin is considered an important retinoid in embryonic development and its association with lipid-core nanocapsules (TTN-LNC) represents an innovative way of improving its solubility, and chemical stability, and reducing its toxicity. The effects of supplementing IVM medium with TTN-LNC was evaluated by analyzing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), S36-phosphorilated-p66Shc levels and caspase activity in early embryonic development, and expression of apoptosis and pluripotency genes in blastocysts. The lowest concentration tested (0.25M) of TTN-LNC generated higher blastocyst rate, lower ROS production and S36-p66Shc amount. Additionally, expression of BAX and SHC1 were lower in both non-encapsulated tretinoin (TTN) and TTN-LNC-treated groups. Nanoencapsulation allowed the use of smaller concentrations of tretinoin to supplement IVM medium thus reducing toxic effects related with its use, decreasing ROS levels and apoptose frequency, and improving the blastocyst rates.

Pontes J.H.F.,In vitro Brazil Ltda | Melo Sterza F.A.,State University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Basso A.C.,In vitro Brazil Ltda | Ferreira C.R.,In vitro Brazil Ltda | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2011

The objective was to clarify in vitro production of bovine embryos in Brazil. Data from 656 ovum pick-up/in vitro production (OPU/IVP) procedures, performed on 317 Nelore (Bos indicus) donors, without hormone stimulation or control of ovarian follicular waves, were analysed. Donors were subjected to OPU from one to nine times (no specific schedule), with -1.< 15 d between consecutive procedures. There were 20,848 oocytes, of which 15,747 (75.53%) were considered viable, 5,446 embryos were obtained, 5,398 embryos were immediately transferred, resulting in 1,974 pregnancies (36.57%) at Day 30 and 1,788 (33.12%) pregnancies at Day 60. The average number of total and viable oocytes produced per OPU session was (mean -± SEM) 30.84 -± 0.88 and 23.35 -± 0.7 (average of 8.1 -± 0.3 embryos and 3.0 -± 0.1 pregnancies per OPU-IVP procedure). Since oocyte production varied widely among donor, they were designated as very high, high, intermediate, and low, with 58.94 -± 2.04, 32.61 -± 0.50, 22.13 -± 0.50, zand 10.26 -± 0.57 oocytes, respectively, produced by 78, 80, 79, and 80 donors. The number of viable oocytes recovered ranged from 0 to 128; since donors with numerous viable oocytes produced many viable embryos and pregnancies, oocyte production was useful for donor selection. However, there was no significant effect of the number of OPU sessions per donor on mean numbers of oocytes produced. In conclusion, we confirmed field reports of high oocyte production by some Nelore donors and demonstrated individual variation in oocyte yield, which was associated with embryo production and pregnancy rates. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Sanches B.V.,InVitro Brazil Ltda | Marinho L.S.R.,Laboratorio Of Reproducao Animal | Filho B.D.O.,Federal University of Goais | Pontes J.H.F.,InVitro Brazil Ltda | And 5 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2013

Invitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos are more sensitive to cryopreservation than their invivo counterparts due to their higher lipid concentrations, whereas Bos indicus IVP embryos are even more sensitive than Bos taurus IVP embryos. To examine the effects of a lipolytic agent, before vitrification of Bos indicus IVP embryos, on embryo survival, viability, and pregnancy rates, two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, Bos indicus (Nelore) embryos were produced from abattoir-derived ovaries and allocated into two groups. In the treatment group, 10 μM of forskolin was added to the invitro culture medium on Day 5 and incubated for 48 hours. On Day 7 of culture, IVP-expanded blastocysts from both the control (n = 101) and treatment (n = 112) groups were vitrified with ethylene glycol and DMSO via the Cryotop procedure. Although there was no significant difference between the rates of blastocoel reexpansion and hatching of the embryos exposed to forskolin (87.5% and 70.5%, respectively) compared with the control embryos (79.2% and 63.3%, respectively), the numerically superior rates of the embryos exposed to forskolin led to another experiment. In experiment 2, blastocysts produced from the ovum pick up were exposed or not exposed to the lipolytic agent and vitrified as in experiment 1. Embryos treated with forskolin had higher pregnancy rates than the control group (48.8% vs. 18.5%). In view of these results, 1908 Bos indicus embryos were produced from ovum pick up, exposed to the lipolytic agent, and blastocysts were transferred to recipients, and the pregnancy rates of the embryos of various breeds were compared. The mean pregnancy rate obtained was 43.2%. All data were analyzed by chi-square or by binary logistic regression (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, treatment with forskolin before vitrification improved cryotolerance of Bos indicus IVP embryos, resulting in good post-transfer pregnancy rates. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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