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Kogan F.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Goldberg M.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Schott T.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Guo W.,IMSG
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2015

Since 1990, the role of satellite observations for climate and land services increased considerably, especially with the introduction in 2011 of the new generation of NOAA operational satellites, called Suomi NPOSS Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP). S-NPP will continue as the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) for the next two decades. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the S-NPP spacecraft is accommodating the best technical and scientific features of its predecessors and has several new important features. S-NPP and JPSS, in addition to data collection, will address the impacts of climate and weather on industries, water, energy, population health, and other resources and activities. This article discusses how these operational satellites improve early drought detection, monitoring its features (intensity, duration, area, etc.) and prediction of agricultural losses; how fast the Earth’s natural resources deteriorate; and whether the current warm climate intensifies droughts and increases its area and duration. These climate services have already become available to the global community (http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/smcd/emb/vci/VH/index.php). The S-NPP/VIIRS data permits its users to enhance long-term environmental data records, thereby improving the ability to estimate global warming, land-cover changes, and better monitoring of environmental resources. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Rahman A.,City College of New York | Kogan F.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Roytman L.,City College of New York | Goldberg M.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Guo W.,IMSG
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

Epidemic malaria cases and satellite-based vegetation health (VH) indices were investigated to be used as predictors of malaria vector activities in Bangladesh. The VH indices were derived from radiances, measured by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) afternoon polar orbiting satellites. Two indices characterizing moisture and thermal conditions were investigated using correlation and regression analysis applied to the number of malaria cases recorded in the entire Bangladesh region and three administrative divisions (Chittagong, Sylhet and Dhaka) during 1992-2001. It is shown that during the cooler months (November to March), when mosquitoes are less active, the correlation between number of malaria cases and two investigated indices was near zero. From April, when the mosquito activity season starts, the correlation increased, reaching a maximum value of 0.5-0.8 by the middle of the high season (June to July), reducing thereafter to zero by the beginning of the cool season in November. Following these results, regressional equations for the number of malaria cases as a function of VH indices were built and tested independently. They showed that, in the main malaria administrative division (Chittagong) and the entire Bangladesh region, the regressional equations can be used for early prediction of malaria development. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Liang D.,IMSG | Weng F.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Chen Y.,Colorado State University | Zhu T.,CIRA CSU NOAA NESDIS JCSDA
International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) | Year: 2012

The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP) F-18 Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) brightness temperature difference (O-B) between observations and simulations from the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) based on 6 hour forecast fields of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forest System (GFS) are analyzed in this paper. It shows that after the current GSI bias correction, the O-B from SSMIS F-18 lower atmospheric sounding (LAS) channels are still significant and depend on nodes, seasons, latitudes and channels. © 2012 IEEE.

Wu X.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Qian H.,IMSG | Yu F.,ERT Inc. | Beck T.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) | Year: 2011

GOES Imager visible channel has no onboard calibration devices. While many methods of vicarious calibration exist, one of few viable options to render the calibration absolute is to make it traceable to MODIS. However, the spectral response function for the visible band of MODIS is very different from that of GOES Imager visible channel. In this study we use the hyperspectral data collected by GOME-2 to characterize the difference due to SRF under various conditions. It was found that this difference tends to be stable for bright clouds, although there are variations among GOES. This results offer guidance for target selection in inter-calibration with MODIS. © 2011 IEEE.

Flynn L.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Rault D.,NASA | Jaross G.,SSAI | Petropavlovskikh I.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | And 6 more authors.
International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) | Year: 2011

NOAA, through the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) program, in partnership with National Aeronautical Space Administration (NASA), will launch the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite, a risk reduction and data continuity mission, prior to the first operational JPSS launch. The JPSS program will execute the NPP Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) program to ensure the data products comply with the requirements of the sponsoring agencies. © 2011 IEEE.

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