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Calverton, MD, United States

Cook M.B.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Wood S.N.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Cash B.D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Young P.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 17 more authors.
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Background and Aims: Esophageal adenocarcinoma is believed to result from the progression of gastroesophageal reflux disease to erosive esophagitis and re-epithelialization of the esophagus with a columnar cell population termed Barrett's esophagus (BE). Men develop BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma more frequently than women, yet little is known about the mechanisms of this difference. We assessed whether sex steroid hormones were associated with BE in a male population. Methods: We analyzed data from the Barrett's Esophagus Early Detection Case Control Study, based at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. Blood samples were collected from 174 men with BE and 213 men without BE (controls, based on endoscopic analysis); 13 sex steroid hormones were measured by mass spectrometry and sex hormone binding globulin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also calculated free estradiol, free testosterone, and free dihydrotestosterone (DHT). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age, race, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, heartburn, regurgitation, and gastroesophageal symptom score (excluding heartburn and regurgitation). Results: Levels of free testosterone and free DHT were associated positively with BE risk; patients in the highest quartile for these hormones were most likely to have BE (free testosterone: OR, 5.36; 95% CI, 2.21-13.03; P= .0002; free DHT: OR, 4.25; 95% CI, 1.87-9.66; P= .001). Level of estrone sulfate was associated inversely with BE risk (P for trend= .02). No other hormone was associated with BE risk. Relationships were not modified by age or BMI. Conclusions: In an analysis of men, levels of free testosterone and free DHT were significantly associated withBE. © 2015 AGA Institute. Source

Brinton L.A.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Scoccia B.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Moghissi K.S.,Wayne State University | Westhoff C.L.,Columbia University | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention

Background: Although fertility drugs stimulate ovulation and raise estradiol levels, their effect on breast cancer risk remains unresolved. Methods: An extended follow-up was conducted among a cohort of 12,193 women evaluated for infertility between 1965 and 1988 at five U.S. sites. Follow-up through 2010 was achieved for 9,892 women (81.1% of the eligible population) via passive as well as active (questionnaires) means. Cox regression determined HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for fertility treatments adjusted for breast cancer risk factors and causes of infertility. Results: During 30.0 median years of follow-up (285,332 person-years), 749 breast cancers were observed. Ever use of clomiphene citrate among 38.1% of patients was not associated with risk (HR = 1.05; 95% CI, 0.90-1.22 vs. never use). However, somewhat higher risks were seen for patients who received multiple cycles, with the risk for invasive cancers confirmed by medical records being significantly elevated (HR = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.17-2.46). This risk remained relatively unchanged after adjustment for causes of infertility and multiple breast cancer predictors. Gonadotropins, used by 9.6% of patients, mainly in conjunction with clomiphene, showed inconsistent associations with risk, although a significant relationship of use with invasive cancers was seen among women who remained nulligravid (HR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.04-3.60). Conclusions: Although the increased breast cancer risk among nulligravid women associated with gonadotropins most likely reflects an effect of underlying causes of infertility, reasons for the elevated risk associated with multiple clomiphene cycles are less clear. Impact: Given our focus on a relatively young population, additional evaluation of long-term fertility drug effects on breast cancer is warranted. ©2014 AACR. Source

Ims Company | Date: 2014-03-24


IMS Inc. | Date: 2012-08-23

Disposable latex and nitrile gloves for general use.

IMS Company | Date: 2012-08-17


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