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Ahmad M.Z.,Icare institute of Medical science | Hussain T.,Icare institute of Medical science | Kumar M.,IMS BHU
Medico-Legal Update | Year: 2012

Poisoning is a common medical emergency and one of the important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries like India due to easy availability of poisonous substances and its low cost. The study group comprised 130 cases admitted to BC Roy Hospital, Haldia (W.B), Organophosphorus poisoning constituted 55.39% of total cases. Maximum number of poisoning cases were between the age group of 21 - 30 years and of low socio economic status. Male were more affected then female. 60.76% of the cases were from rural area and pulmonary oedema was the most common complication and most common cause of death in this present study.


Jain D.,Banaras Hindu University | Kumar V.,IMS BHU | Kar D.P.,IMS BHU | Prasad S.R.,IMS BHU
Indian Heart Journal | Year: 2013

A 35-year-old man presented with dilated cardiomyopathy, an unusual association with tuberous sclerosis. Clinical history and examination were consistent with tuberous sclerosis including major features of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) like facial angiofibroma, shagreen patch, subependymal nodules, and angiomyolipoma of kidney. The clinical manifestations, pathogenesis and evaluation of tuberous sclerosis are discussed. © 2012, Cardiological Society of India. All rights reserved.


Gaur P.K.,Its Paramedical Pharmacy College | Gaur P.K.,Jodhpur National University | Purohit S.,IMS BHU | Kumar Y.,Its Paramedical Pharmacy College | Bhandari A.,Jodhpur National University
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Lipid vesicles are an important drug carrier which can serve for controlled delivery of drugs; however, these vesicles are quite unstable at ambient temperature and require stringent storage condition. Present work was done to develop a stable vesicular system for drug delivery. Vesicles of ceramide-2, cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate, and palmitic acid were prepared and compared with phosphatidylcholine vesicles for physicochemical parameters and accelerated stability. Diclofenac sodium was used as a model drug. Based on physicochemical parameter and in vitro release PCV-3 and CV-3 were selected for further studies in three different accelerated stability conditions. PCV-3 showed moderate changes at 4°C but was severely affected at 25°C and 40°C. CV-3 showed stable characteristics at 4°C and 25°C whereas at 40°C, CV-3 showed signs of slight modification owing to moisture absorption. Based on the study, CV-3 containing highest content of palmitic acid was found to be most stable. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Gaur P.K.,P.A. College | Gaur P.K.,Jodhpur National University | Mishra S.,Jamia Hamdard University | Purohit S.,IMS BHU | And 2 more authors.
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Context: Ibuprofen is an important NSAID, however, it can cause GI disturbances when given orally, and employment of transdermal route will require permeation enhancer causing skin injury. Objective: Drug-loaded nanovesicles of ceramide-2, cholesterol, palmitic acid, and cholesteryl sulfate (ICVG) were formulated and analyzed for physicochemical and permeation properties. Materials and method: Vesicles were formulated using film hydration method and physicochemical parameters, in vitro drug release, and stability were assessed. Further, nanovesicle gels were evaluated against plain gel containing drug (CG) for ex vivo/in vivo drug permeation and anti-inflammatory activity. Results: The developed formulations showed optimal physicochemical profile and ICV-1 gave 97.24% drug release. Drug permeation was between 17.32 and 33.12 μg/cm for ICVG formulations and 0.27 μg/cm for CG. ICVG-1 and CG showed Cmax of 9.6 and 0.7 μg/ml at 8 and 4 h. ICVG-1 showed 19.9 times higher AUC than CG. Edema inhibition was 57.98% during initial hours by ICVG-1. Discussion: Ratio of ceramide 2 and palmitic acid plays a critical role in drug permeation through stratum corneum. The stability and protective effect of the formulations were due to ceramide content. Conclusion: The composition has an important role in physicochemical properties and drug permeation thereby generating an optimum formulation. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Gaur P.K.,Its Paramedical Pharmacy College | Gaur P.K.,Jodhpur National University | Purohit S.,IMS BHU | Mishra S.,Jamia Hamdard University
Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition | Year: 2013

Context: Aceclofenac is an important NSAID; however, it causes GI disturbances whereas employing transdermal route would require permeation enhancer for systemic application, thereby causing skin damage. Ceramide 2 is a natural lipid having an important role in the maintenance of skin. Objective: Aceclofenac-loaded nanovesicles of ceramide-2, cholesterol, palmitic acid, and cholesteryl sulfate were formulated and analyzed for physical and biological properties. Materials and method: Film hydration method was used to prepare the vesicles and physical parameters, in vitro drug release and stability were evaluated. Then, they were formulated into gel and evaluated against a commercial formulation (CF) and gel-containing plain drug (CPG) for ex vivo, in vivo drug permeation, and anti-inflammatory activity. Results: The developed formulations showed best physical profile and ACV-1 gave 92.89% drug release in in vitro studies. Ex vivo studies showed drug permeation between 15.32-31.12 μg/cm2, whereas CPG and CF released 0.47 and 2.81 μg/cm 2, respectively. ACVG-1 and CF showed Cmax of 8.1 and 1.2 μg/ml at 8 and 4 h, respectively. ACVG-1 showed 11.6 times AUC than CF. ACVG-1 inhibited edema by 44% in first hour itself. Discussion: Ceramide 2 and palmitic acid played an important role in the formulation and promotes the drug permeation through stratum corneum and dermis. Ceramide content of the formulation also contributes towards stability and skin protection. Conclusion: The composition of the vesicle formulation performs an important role in physical properties and drug permeation, thereby producing an optimum formulation. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Singh U.,Incharge Advanced Immunodiagnostic Training and Research Center | Rai V.,IMS BHU | Singh R.,IMS BHU | Santosh D.,IMS BHU | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2016

Introduction: Hypothyroidism is prevalent in India. Its association with renal diseases though not very common but have been described in many studies. Here we are reporting renal biopsy findings in 16 cases, all of whom were already diagnosed cases of hypothyroidism. Aim: To study renal parenchymal diseases associated in patients with hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: Formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections of renal biopsy were examined after staining with H&E, PAS and Acid Fuschin Orange G (AFOG) stain. Serum urea/ creatinine measurements done by semi-autoanalysers and urine analysis were done by using urine strips and light microscopy. Results: In 16 cases, M:F ratio was 9:7. Duration of disease varied from 6 months to 14 years. Blood urea and serum creatinine were raised in 10 cases (62.5%) and nephrotic range proteinuria was present in 13 cases (81.25%). Two of the patients had co existing systemic lupus erythaematous. Renal pathology revealed membranous glomerulonephritis (GN) in both cases. In renal biopsy seven cases (43.75%) had pure Membranous Glomerulonephritis (MGN), 4 cases (25%) had mixture of Mesangial cell proliferation and membranous Glomerulonephritis(GN) also called MembranoProliferative GN (MPGN). Another four cases (25%) had Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) with chronic interstitial nephritis and one case was having minimal change disease. Conclusion: Thus present study concludes that hypothyroidism can cause renal parenchymal disease like membranous GN, mesangiocapillary GN which is also called as membranoproliferative GN and FSGS. © 2016, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.


Kansal S.,IMS BHU | Kumar A.,IMS BHU
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development | Year: 2014

Research question: What is the extent of knowledge about tuberculosis and different components of RNTCP among people residing in an urban area of Varanasi? Objectives: 1. To assess the knowledge of residents of study area regarding tuberculosis and different component of RNTCP. 2. To identify socio-demographic correlates influencing the knowledge of population about tuberculosis and RNTCP. Study Design: Community based cross sectional study. Setting: The Study was carried out in an urban area of Varanasi district. Results: A total of 667 subjects were interviewed. It was found that about one third of the study subjects were not aware about the correct cause of tuberculosis as germs. The study reveals that 85.8% study subjects had knowledge of DOTS centre and 52.6% knew about DOTS provider. Duration of treatment of tuberculosis ranged from 6 to 9 months was known to 47.0% subjects while 32.0% had no idea about it. Majority (64%) mentioned/ reported that stigma is the main reason for delay in seeking treatment. Still stigma associated with TB is widely prevalent. Approximately 88.0% of them knew that tuberculosis is curable. Conclusion: Overall knowledge of population of urban area was found to be fairly good. Community based efforts are also required to identify the DOTS provider as major change agent in the demand generation as well as service provision. As the programme is based on passive surveillance, IEC strategies should be tailor made & suited to all the needs of a sub population.


Gaur P.K.,Jodhpur National University | Gaur P.K.,Its Paramedical Pharmacy College | Purohit S.,IMS BHU | Kumar Y.,Its Paramedical Pharmacy College | And 2 more authors.
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy | Year: 2014

Context: The vesicles based on skin lipid have a drug localization effect and its main lipid, ceramide provides protective and regenerative effects while oleic acid (OA) is a penetration enhancer, however, it causes slight irritation, so we have formulated formulation incorporating both of these to develop a transdermal formulation for better permeation. Objective: Present study investigated the preparation and characterization of physicochemical properties and permeation of nanovesicles of ceramide-2 containing OA and palmitic acid (PA) respectively and a commercial gel. Materials and methods: The vesicles were made using ceramide 2, cholesterol (Chol), cholesteryl sulfate (CS) and OA or PA, respectively, using film hydration method. The vesicles were characterized for physicochemical properties, ex vivo permeation using human skin and pharmacokinetic parameters and anti-inflammatory activity in rats. Results: The vesicles showed size at 102-125nm while PDI was 0.11-0.13 and negative zeta potential. OV-3 showed highest entrapment efficiency. The drug fluxes were 92.02 and 8.920μg/cm2/h, respectively, for OV-3 and PV-1. The Cmax were 7.91 and 4.01μg/ml at 4 and 6h for OV-3 (2.5mg) and PV-1 (10mg), respectively. OV-3 and PV-1 showed 98.8% and 77.36% edema inhibition, respectively, at 3h. Discussion: Both formulations showed similar physical parameters and different permeation since OA get incorporated in vesicles and increases its permeability and ceramide makes sure that vesicles can rapidly traverse the stratum corneum. Conclusion: OV-3 containing 3% OA showed optimum physical parameters and good permeation with maximum anti-inflammatory activity. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.


Kansal S.,IMS BHU | Kumar A.,IMS BHU
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development | Year: 2011

Research Question: What is the extent of knowledge about tuberculosis and different components of RNTCP among people residing in an urban area of Varanasi? Objectives: 1. To assess the knowledge of residents of study area regarding tuberculosis and different component of RNTCP. 2. To identify socio-demographic correlates influencing the knowledge of population about tuberculosis and RNTCP. Study Design: Community based cross sectional study. Setting The Study was carried out in an urban area of Varanasi district. Results: A total of 667 subjects were interviewed. It was found that about one third of the study subjects were not aware about the correct cause of tuberculosis as germs. The study reveals that 85.8% study subjects had knowledge of DOTS centre and 52.6% knew about DOTS provider. Duration of treatment of tuberculosis ranged from 6 to 9 months was known to 47.0% subjects while 32.0% had no idea about it. Majority (64%) mentioned/ reported that stigma is the main reason for delay in seeking treatment. Still stigma associated with TB is widely prevalent. Approximately 88.0% of them knew that tuberculosis is curable. Conclusion: Overall knowledge of population of urban area was found to be fairly good. Community based efforts are also required to identify the DOTS provider as major change agent in the demand generation as well as service provision. As the programme is based on passive surveillance, IEC strategies should be tailor made & suited to all the needs of a sub population.

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