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Vārānasi, India

Gaur P.K.,Its Paramedical Pharmacy College | Gaur P.K.,Jodhpur National University | Purohit S.,IMS BHU | Mishra S.,Jamia Hamdard University
Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition | Year: 2013

Context: Aceclofenac is an important NSAID; however, it causes GI disturbances whereas employing transdermal route would require permeation enhancer for systemic application, thereby causing skin damage. Ceramide 2 is a natural lipid having an important role in the maintenance of skin. Objective: Aceclofenac-loaded nanovesicles of ceramide-2, cholesterol, palmitic acid, and cholesteryl sulfate were formulated and analyzed for physical and biological properties. Materials and method: Film hydration method was used to prepare the vesicles and physical parameters, in vitro drug release and stability were evaluated. Then, they were formulated into gel and evaluated against a commercial formulation (CF) and gel-containing plain drug (CPG) for ex vivo, in vivo drug permeation, and anti-inflammatory activity. Results: The developed formulations showed best physical profile and ACV-1 gave 92.89% drug release in in vitro studies. Ex vivo studies showed drug permeation between 15.32-31.12 μg/cm2, whereas CPG and CF released 0.47 and 2.81 μg/cm 2, respectively. ACVG-1 and CF showed Cmax of 8.1 and 1.2 μg/ml at 8 and 4 h, respectively. ACVG-1 showed 11.6 times AUC than CF. ACVG-1 inhibited edema by 44% in first hour itself. Discussion: Ceramide 2 and palmitic acid played an important role in the formulation and promotes the drug permeation through stratum corneum and dermis. Ceramide content of the formulation also contributes towards stability and skin protection. Conclusion: The composition of the vesicle formulation performs an important role in physical properties and drug permeation, thereby producing an optimum formulation. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Gaur P.K.,Its Paramedical Pharmacy College | Gaur P.K.,Jodhpur National University | Purohit S.,IMS BHU | Kumar Y.,Its Paramedical Pharmacy College | Bhandari A.,Jodhpur National University
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Lipid vesicles are an important drug carrier which can serve for controlled delivery of drugs; however, these vesicles are quite unstable at ambient temperature and require stringent storage condition. Present work was done to develop a stable vesicular system for drug delivery. Vesicles of ceramide-2, cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate, and palmitic acid were prepared and compared with phosphatidylcholine vesicles for physicochemical parameters and accelerated stability. Diclofenac sodium was used as a model drug. Based on physicochemical parameter and in vitro release PCV-3 and CV-3 were selected for further studies in three different accelerated stability conditions. PCV-3 showed moderate changes at 4°C but was severely affected at 25°C and 40°C. CV-3 showed stable characteristics at 4°C and 25°C whereas at 40°C, CV-3 showed signs of slight modification owing to moisture absorption. Based on the study, CV-3 containing highest content of palmitic acid was found to be most stable. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Ahmad M.Z.,Icare institute of Medical science | Hussain T.,Icare institute of Medical science | Kumar M.,IMS BHU
Medico-Legal Update | Year: 2012

Poisoning is a common medical emergency and one of the important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries like India due to easy availability of poisonous substances and its low cost. The study group comprised 130 cases admitted to BC Roy Hospital, Haldia (W.B), Organophosphorus poisoning constituted 55.39% of total cases. Maximum number of poisoning cases were between the age group of 21 - 30 years and of low socio economic status. Male were more affected then female. 60.76% of the cases were from rural area and pulmonary oedema was the most common complication and most common cause of death in this present study.

Gaur P.K.,P.A. College | Gaur P.K.,Jodhpur National University | Mishra S.,Jamia Hamdard University | Purohit S.,IMS BHU | And 2 more authors.
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Context: Ibuprofen is an important NSAID, however, it can cause GI disturbances when given orally, and employment of transdermal route will require permeation enhancer causing skin injury. Objective: Drug-loaded nanovesicles of ceramide-2, cholesterol, palmitic acid, and cholesteryl sulfate (ICVG) were formulated and analyzed for physicochemical and permeation properties. Materials and method: Vesicles were formulated using film hydration method and physicochemical parameters, in vitro drug release, and stability were assessed. Further, nanovesicle gels were evaluated against plain gel containing drug (CG) for ex vivo/in vivo drug permeation and anti-inflammatory activity. Results: The developed formulations showed optimal physicochemical profile and ICV-1 gave 97.24% drug release. Drug permeation was between 17.32 and 33.12 μg/cm for ICVG formulations and 0.27 μg/cm for CG. ICVG-1 and CG showed Cmax of 9.6 and 0.7 μg/ml at 8 and 4 h. ICVG-1 showed 19.9 times higher AUC than CG. Edema inhibition was 57.98% during initial hours by ICVG-1. Discussion: Ratio of ceramide 2 and palmitic acid plays a critical role in drug permeation through stratum corneum. The stability and protective effect of the formulations were due to ceramide content. Conclusion: The composition has an important role in physicochemical properties and drug permeation thereby generating an optimum formulation. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Gaur P.K.,Jodhpur National University | Gaur P.K.,Its Paramedical Pharmacy College | Purohit S.,IMS BHU | Kumar Y.,Its Paramedical Pharmacy College | And 2 more authors.
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy | Year: 2014

Context: The vesicles based on skin lipid have a drug localization effect and its main lipid, ceramide provides protective and regenerative effects while oleic acid (OA) is a penetration enhancer, however, it causes slight irritation, so we have formulated formulation incorporating both of these to develop a transdermal formulation for better permeation. Objective: Present study investigated the preparation and characterization of physicochemical properties and permeation of nanovesicles of ceramide-2 containing OA and palmitic acid (PA) respectively and a commercial gel. Materials and methods: The vesicles were made using ceramide 2, cholesterol (Chol), cholesteryl sulfate (CS) and OA or PA, respectively, using film hydration method. The vesicles were characterized for physicochemical properties, ex vivo permeation using human skin and pharmacokinetic parameters and anti-inflammatory activity in rats. Results: The vesicles showed size at 102-125nm while PDI was 0.11-0.13 and negative zeta potential. OV-3 showed highest entrapment efficiency. The drug fluxes were 92.02 and 8.920μg/cm2/h, respectively, for OV-3 and PV-1. The Cmax were 7.91 and 4.01μg/ml at 4 and 6h for OV-3 (2.5mg) and PV-1 (10mg), respectively. OV-3 and PV-1 showed 98.8% and 77.36% edema inhibition, respectively, at 3h. Discussion: Both formulations showed similar physical parameters and different permeation since OA get incorporated in vesicles and increases its permeability and ceramide makes sure that vesicles can rapidly traverse the stratum corneum. Conclusion: OV-3 containing 3% OA showed optimum physical parameters and good permeation with maximum anti-inflammatory activity. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.

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