Borvik T.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology |
Borvik T.,Norwegian Defence Estates Agency |
Olovsson L.,Impetus Afea AB |
Dey S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology |
And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Impact Engineering | Year: 2011
Normal and oblique impact on 20 mm thick AA6082-T4 aluminium plates are studied both experimentally and numerically. Two types of small arms bullets were used in the ballistic tests, namely the 7.62 × 63 mm NATO Ball (with a soft lead core) and the 7.62 × 63 mm APM2 (with a hard steel core), fired from a long smooth-bore Mauser rifle. The targets were struck at 0°, 15°, 30°, 45° and 60° obliquity, and the impact velocity was about 830 m/s in all tests. During testing, the initial and residual bullet velocities were measured by various laser-based optical devices, and high-speed video cameras were used to photograph the penetration process. Of special interest is the critical oblique angle at which the penetration process changes from perforation to embedment or ricochet. The results show that the critical oblique angle was less than 60° for both bullet types. A material test programme was also conducted for the AA6082-T4 plate to calibrate a modified Johnson-Cook constitutive relation and the Cockcroft-Latham failure criterion, while material data for the bullets mainly were taken from the literature. 3D non-linear FE simulations with detailed models of the bullets were finally run. Good agreement between the FE simulations and the experimental results for the APM2 bullets was in general obtained, while it was more difficult to get reliable FE results for the soft core Ball bullets. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.