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Hudson L.W.,Impact Lab
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2013

This paper examines the use of SMS, or text messaging. It seeks to lay out the potential for use of SMS not only for beneficiary feedback mechanisms, but also for the critical work to carry out participatory planning and evaluation, and inform communities about program aims and activities. The paper will also outline the learning coming out of documented pilots, identify key challenges, and suggest some next steps for the future.

Kaveri S.V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Kaveri S.V.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Kaveri S.V.,University of Paris Descartes | Kaveri S.V.,Impact Lab
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2012

Antibodies present in healthy conditions in the absence of deliberate immunization or infections are called natural antibodies. A significant proportion of natural antibody pool is believed to interact with self-antigens, and thus is called natural autoantibodies. Natural autoantibodies belong to IgG, IgM and IgA subclasses, and are encoded by V(D)J genes in germline configuration and bind to self molecules with varying affinities. In addition to serving in first line defense mechanism, natural antibodies participate in the homeostasis of the immune system. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is a therapeutic preparation that contains substantial amount of natural antibodies exclusively of IgG subclass. In addition to its role in protection against pathogens in primary and secondary immunodeficiency patients, IVIg exerts a number of immunoregulatory functions through its interaction with innate and adaptive immune system and thereby imposing immune homeostasis. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Hallworth M.J.,Impact Lab
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Hard evidence of the specific contribution made by laboratory testing to patient outcomes and the delivery of health care is not easy to obtain. An understanding of the value of laboratory medicine, how that value can be measured and the various factors that influence it is vital to ensuring that laboratory services are provided and used optimally to improve patient care. To maximise the value of laboratory medicine, work is required to improve the utilisation of existing and new biomarkers, develop standard protocols for prospective patient-centred studies of biomarker clinical effectiveness or extra-analytical process effectiveness, benchmark existing and new tests in specified clinical situations with commonly accepted effectiveness measures, and define new roles for laboratory professionals that are focussed on optimising patient outcomes by adding value throughout the total testing process. This requires effective collaboration with clinical staff and a determination to accept patient outcome and patient experience as the primary measure of laboratory performance. © 2015, © The Author(s) 2015.

Strack O.E.,Sandia National Laboratories | Leavy R.B.,Impact Lab | Brannon R.M.,University of Utah
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering | Year: 2014

Stress concentrations near grain boundaries, precipitates, and similar micro-heterogeneities nucleate instabilities leading to macroscale fracture. As it is not practical to model each flaw explicitly, their ensemble effect is modeled statistically. Accounting for this aleatory uncertainty requires smaller specimens (e.g., small finite elements) to have generally higher and more variable strengths, which is necessary for the initial failure probability of a finite domain to be unaffected by its discretization into elements. Localization itself, which might be attributed to constitutive instability, requires realistic numerical perturbations to predict bifurcations such as radial cracking in axisymmetric problems. These perturbations, stemming from microscale heterogeneity, are incorporated in simulations by imposing statistical spatial variability in the parameters of an otherwise conventional (deterministic and scale-independent) damage model. This approach is attractive for its algorithmic simplicity and straightforward calibration from standard strength tests. In addition, it results in virtually no loss of efficiency or robustness relative to deterministic models and accommodates general three-dimensional loading. Despite these advantages, some significant challenges remain and are discussed. However, it is demonstrated that including aleatory uncertainty with associated scale effects significantly improves predictiveness on large-scale computational domains, where it is impractical to resolve each crack or localization zone. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hartung T.,Johns Hopkins University | Hartung T.,University of Konstanz | Sabbioni E.,Impact Lab | Sabbioni E.,University of Chieti Pescara
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology | Year: 2011

Nanomaterials are acclaimed for their novel properties, for which broad new uses are being discovered with increasing frequency. It is obvious that, as the properties change, unwanted properties (toxicity) are to be expected as well. Current toxicology, however, is already overwhelmed with the challenge of addressing new chemicals, not to mention the enormous number of old chemicals never properly assessed. Limitations of traditional approaches range from animal welfare issues, which were a strong driving force for alternative approaches (the 3Rs concept) over the last two decades, to aspects of throughput and accuracy of the predicted toxicities. The latter has prompted discussion about a revolutionary change in chemical safety assessment, now known as Toxicology for the 21st Century (Tox-21c). The multitude of possible formulations of nanomaterials to be assessed for novel toxic properties makes these alternative approaches especially attractive, given the well recognized limitations of traditional animal-based approaches-limitations that might be even more pronounced for nanomaterials, which have notably altered biokinetics. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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