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Newbold A.,University of Melbourne | Falkenberg K.J.,IMP Research Institute of Molecular Pathology Vienna Austria | Prince H.M.,University of Melbourne | Johnstone R.W.,University of Melbourne
FEBS Journal | Year: 2016

It is now well recognized that mutations, deregulated expression, and aberrant recruitment of epigenetic readers, writers, and erasers are fundamentally important processes in the onset and maintenance of many human tumors. The molecular, biological, and biochemical characteristics of a particular class of epigenetic erasers, the histone deacetylases (HDACs), have been extensively studied and small-molecule HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) have now been clinically approved for the treatment of human hemopoietic malignancies. This review explores our current understanding of the biological and molecular effects on tumor cells following HDACi treatment. The predominant responses include induction of tumor cell death and inhibition of proliferation that in experimental models have been linked to therapeutic efficacy. However, tumor cell-intrinsic responses to HDACi, including modulating tumor immunogenicity have also been described and may have substantial roles in mediating the antitumor effects of HDACi. We posit that the field has failed to fully reconcile the biological consequences of exposure to HDACis with the molecular events that underpin these responses, however progress is being made. Understanding the pleiotrophic activities of HDACis on tumor cells will hopefully fast track the development of more potent and selective HDACi that may be used alone or in combination to improve patient outcomes. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

Ladurner R.,IMP Research Institute of Molecular Pathology Vienna Austria | Kreidl E.,IMP Research Institute of Molecular Pathology Vienna Austria | Ivanov M.P.,IMP Research Institute of Molecular Pathology Vienna Austria | Ekker H.,Campus Science Support Facilities NGS Facility Vienna Austria | And 5 more authors.
EMBO Journal | Year: 2016

Cohesion between sister chromatids is established during DNA replication but needs to be maintained to enable proper chromosome-spindle attachments in mitosis or meiosis. Cohesion is mediated by cohesin, but also depends on cohesin acetylation and sororin. Sororin contributes to cohesion by stabilizing cohesin on DNA. Sororin achieves this by inhibiting WAPL, which otherwise releases cohesin from DNA and destroys cohesion. Here we describe mouse models which enable the controlled depletion of sororin by gene deletion or auxin-induced degradation. We show that sororin is essential for embryonic development, cohesion maintenance, and proper chromosome segregation. We further show that the acetyltransferases ESCO1 and ESCO2 are essential for stabilizing cohesin on chromatin, that their only function in this process is to acetylate cohesin's SMC3 subunit, and that DNA replication is also required for stable cohesin-chromatin interactions. Unexpectedly, we find that sororin interacts dynamically with the cohesin complexes it stabilizes. This implies that sororin recruitment to cohesin does not depend on the DNA replication machinery or process itself, but on a property that cohesin acquires during cohesion establishment. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

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