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Laslett L.L.,University of Leeds | Kingsbury S.R.,University of Leeds | Hensor E.M.A.,University of Leeds | Bowes M.A.,Imorphics Ltd. | Conaghan P.G.,University of Leeds
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2014

Objectives Bisphosphonates have some reported beneficial effects in treating osteoarthritis (OA). This study examined the effects of bisphosphonate use on symptoms and structural progression of knee OA in participants from the NIH Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort. Methods People with typical OA trial entry criteria (KL2/3, minimum joint space width 2.5-5.0 mm and pain ≥4 on a numeric rating scale) were classified as bisphosphonate users (≥3 of the 5 years; n=55) or non-users (no use in the preceding 5 years or during follow-up; n=268). Annual data over 4 years were analysed using linear mixed modelling and generalised estimating equations. Results Bisphosphonate compliance was 85% at year 1, reducing to 76% by year 4. Numeric rating scale pain scores were significantly reduced among bisphosphonate users at years 2 and 3 (year 3, -0.9 vs -2.2, p=0.004), though not year 4, after adjustment for baseline pain and analgesic use. Differences in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and disability scores did not reach statistical significance at any time point. There was a trend to less joint space narrowing in bisphosphonate users over time (year 4, 0.51 vs 0.29 mm; p=0.06). Conclusions Significant reduction in numeric rating scale pain was observed in the first 3 years with bisphosphonate use; diminution of effects by year 4 may reflect reduced compliance. Differences in results obtained using numeric rating scale and WOMAC may reflect different constructs measured by these tools. The beneficial trend on structural progression should be considered in terms of the sample size. Source

Barr A.J.,University of Leeds | Dube B.,University of Leeds | Hensor E.M.A.,University of Leeds | Kingsbury S.R.,University of Leeds | And 3 more authors.
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage | Year: 2014

Background: Radiographic measures of osteoarthritis (OA) are based upon two dimensional projection images. Active appearance modelling (AAM) of knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables accurate, 3D quantification of joint structures in large cohorts. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between clinical characteristics, radiographic measures of OA and 3D bone area (tAB). Methods: Clinical data and baseline paired radiographic and MRI data, from the medial compartment of one knee of 2588 participants were obtained from the NIH Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). The medial femur (MF) and tibia (MT) tAB were calculated using AAM. 'OA-attributable' tAB (OA-tAB) was calculated using data from regression models of tAB of knees without OA. Associations between OA-tAB and radiographic measures of OA were investigated using linear regression. Results: In univariable analyses, height, weight, and age in female knees without OA explained 43.1%, 32.1% and 0.1% of the MF tAB variance individually and 54.4% when included simultaneously in a multivariable model. Joint space width (JSW), osteophytes and sclerosis explained just 5.3%, 14.9% and 10.1% of the variance of MF OA-tAB individually and 17.4% when combined. Kellgren Lawrence (KL) grade explained approximately 20% of MF OA-tAB individually. Similar results were seen for MT OA-tAB. Conclusion: Height explained the majority of variance in tAB, confirming an allometric relationship between body and joint size. Radiographic measures of OA, derived from a single radiographic projection, accounted for only a small amount of variation in 3D knee OA-tAB. The additional structural information provided by 3D bone area may explain the lack of a substantive relationship with these radiographic OA measures. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Balamoody S.,University of Manchester | Williams T.G.,University of Manchester | Waterton J.C.,University of Manchester | Waterton J.C.,Astrazeneca | And 5 more authors.
Arthritis Research and Therapy | Year: 2010

Introduction: Cartilage thickness from MR images has been identified as a possible biomarker in knee osteoarthritis (OA) research. The ability to acquire MR data at multiple centers by using different vendors' scanners would facilitate patient recruitment and shorten the duration of OA trials. Several vendors manufacture 3T MR scanners, including Siemens, Philips Medical Systems, and GE Healthcare. This study investigates whether quantitative MR assessments of cartilage morphology are comparable between scanners of three different vendors.Methods: Twelve subjects with symptoms of knee OA and one or more risk factors had their symptomatic knee scanned on each of the three vendor's scanners located in three sites in the UK: Manchester (Philips), York (GE), and Liverpool (Siemens). The NIH OAI study protocol was used for the Siemens scanner, and equivalent protocols were developed for the Philips and GE scanners with vendors' advice. Cartilage was segmented manually from sagittal 3D images. By using recently described techniques for Anatomically Corresponded Regional Analysis of Cartilage (ACRAC), a statistical model was used anatomically to align all the images and to produce detailed maps of mean differences in cartilage-thickness measures between scanners. Measures of cartilage mean thickness were computed in anatomically equivalent regions for each subject and scanner image.Results: The ranges of mean cartilage-thickness measures for this cohort were similar for all regions and across all scanners. Philips intrascanner root-mean-square coefficients of variation were low in the range from 2.6% to 4.6%. No significant differences were found for thickness measures of the weight-bearing femorotibial regions from the Philips and Siemens images except for the central medial femur compartment (P = 0.04). Compared with the other two scanners, the GE scanner provided consistently lower mean thickness measures in the central femoral regions (mean difference, -0.16 mm) and higher measures in the tibial compartments (mean difference, +0.19 mm).Conclusions: The OAI knee-imaging protocol, developed on the Siemens platform, can be applied to research and trials by using other vendors' 3T scanners giving comparable morphologic results. Accurate sequence optimization, differences in image postprocessing, and extremity coil type are critical factors for interscanner precision of quantitative analysis of cartilage morphology. It is still recommended that longitudinal observations on individuals should be performed on the same scanner and that assessment of intra- and interscanner precision errors is undertaken before commencement of the main study. © 2010 Balamoody et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

IMORPHICS Ltd | Date: 2010-02-10

A computer-implemented method for identifying features in an image. The method comprises fitting a plurality of second models to the image, the plurality of second models together modelling a region of interest, wherein each part of the region of interest is modelled by at least two of the plurality of second models; and identifying the features in the image based upon the fit of the plurality of second models.

Bowes M.A.,Imorphics Ltd. | Vincent G.R.,Imorphics Ltd. | Wolstenholme C.B.,Imorphics Ltd. | Conaghan P.G.,University of Leeds
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Modern image analysis enables the accurate quantification of knee osteoarthritis (OA) bone using MRI. We hypothesised that three-dimensional changes in bone would be characteristic of OA and provide a responsive measure of progression. Methods: 1312 participants with radiographic knee OA, and 885 non-OA controls with MRIs at baseline, 1, 2 and 4 years were selected from the NIH Osteoarthritis Initiative. Automated segmentation of all knee bones and calculation of bone area was performed using active appearance models. In a subset of 352 participants, responsiveness of bone area change was compared with change in radiographic joint space width (JSW) and MRI cartilage thickness over a 2-year period. Results: All OA knee compartments showed increased bone area over time compared with non-OA participants: for example, the 4-year percentage change from baseline in medial femur area for OA (95% CI) was 1.87(0.13), non-OA 0.43 (0.07); p<0.0001. Bone area change was more responsive than cartilage thickness or JSW; 2-year SRM for bone area in the medial femur was 0.83, for the most responsive cartilage thickness measure central medial femorotibial composite (cMFTC): 0.38, JSW: 0.35. Almost half of all knees had change greater than smallest detectable difference at 2 years. Body mass index, gender and alignment had only a small effect on the rate of change of bone area. Conclusions: Changes in bone area discriminated people with OA from controls and was more responsive than the current and impending standards for assessing OA progression. The shape change in OA bone provides a new window on OA pathogenesis and a focus for clinical trials. © 2013 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & European League Against Rheumatism. Source

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