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Chima G.N.,Abia State University | Ezekwe C.I.,Imo State Polytechnic | Ijioma M.A.,Abia State University | Opuene K.,Nigerian Agip Oil Company Ltd
International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences | Year: 2010

Spatial variations and levels of heavy metal concentrations within sediments of the Ivo River basin of Southeastern Nigeria were determined using river and lake-bottom sediments. This was with a view to evaluate the impact of mining in the environment especially water resources in relation to guidelines for protection against adverse biological effects. Samples were analyzed for heavy metals, clay, and total organic carbon content. The studied sites did not show any significant intra site seasonal variation in sediment-associated metal levels (P>0.05). However, there is a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) between the level of heavy metals in different sites. Differences in heavy metals concentration are a result of clay/organic matter content in sediments and impact from mining activities. Results were also compared with threshold and probable toxic effects level. We conclude that metal concentrations have been affected by mining activities and that all the trace elements analysed in the bottom-sediment samples from the mining areas exceeded the respective threshold and probable-effects level. Metal concentrations occurred in the range where toxic effects are probable. Use of best available pollution control technology in mining which includes effluent control measures is recommended. © Research India Publications.

Ononogbo C.,Imo State Polytechnic | Nwufo O.C.,Federal University of Technology Owerri | Okoronkwo C.A.,Federal University of Technology Owerri | Igbokwe J.O.,Federal University of Technology Owerri | Anyanwu E.E.,Federal University of Technology Owerri
Biofuels | Year: 2016

Performance evaluation of the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was conducted in a laboratory scale test rig consisting of an upflow bioreactor with central substrate dispenser (UBCSD), an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). An influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of 120,320 mg/l was utilized at steady state conditions. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 0–10 days were investigated throughout the experiment at a mesophilic temperature of 37 °C. Two kg of cow rumen content was used as inoculum (to improve microbial activities) and mixed with the organic waste at the initial stage before the reactors were loaded and allowed to run continuously for the stipulated range of HRT. During operation, substrate flow was observed to be more effective in the UBCSD than in the other reactors due to the action of the central substrate dispenser (CSD). The results obtained show the realization of a biogas production lag phase,(Formula presented.), less than 24 hours. Cumulative biogas production for UBCSD, UASB and CSTR were 52915, 23550 and 28980 ml while their percentage COD reductions were calculated to be 95.2, 79.0 and 80.8% respectively. Modified Gompertz and Fenton's first order kinetic models were employed in the study for the analysis of the kinetic parameters. The values of the first order kinetic constant (k) of COD obtained for the reactors were 0.2857, 0.147 and 0.1708 respectively. UBCSD proved to be more efficient than the UASB and CSTR in terms of biogas production and COD reduction. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Adumanya O.C.U.,Imo State Polytechnic | Obi-Adumanya G.A.,Imo State Polytechnic | Chukwu M.O.,Imo State Polytechnic
Research Journal of Applied Sciences | Year: 2012

The Bambara nut flour is often processed into Okpa by the inhabitants of the Eastern part of Nigeria. The Okpa is a well cherished food, especially among the inhabitants of the Eastern part of Nigeria. The vitamin and mineral contents of Okpa prepared with fluted pumpkin and scent leaves were determined. The result shows that the addition of the vegetables increased the Vitamin B 1, B 2 and B 3 contents of Okpa compared with the control at p≤ 0.05. But it did not alter that of Vitamin C levels at p≤0.05. The order of increase in VitammB 1 levels were Sample B>D>C>A. While that of Vitamin B 2 levels were Sample C>D>B>A and that of B 3 contents were D>C>B>A. This points that the presence of these vegetables could serve as a booster to the vitamin contents of Okpa. Also the mineral contents, especially phosphorus, magnesium and calcium ions were significantly change compared with the control at p≤0.05. The Okpa with fluted pumpkin leaves had the highest phosphorus ion contents (136.623±0.372) followed by Okpa with fluted pumpkin and scent leaves combined (114.433±0.377) and then Okpa with scent leaf (92.783±0.377) compared with the control (22.533±0.448). The magnesium ion levels was highest in Okpa with fluted pumpkin (18.400±1.131) followed by Okpa with combined leaves (16.000±l .131) and then Okpa with scent leaf (12.800±2.263) compared with the control (11.200±l. 131). The potassium contents was also highest in Okpa with fluted pumpkin leaf (165.860±0.377) followed by Okpa with scent leaf (153.600±0.653) and Okpa with the combined leaves (143.733±28.097) compared with the control (70.133±0.377). The levels of calcium ion was highest in Okpa with scent leaf and Okpa with the combined leaves (85.50±1.890), respectively followed by Okpa with fluted pumpkin leaf compared with the control (78.833±1.890). The sodium ion levels was not affected significantly at p≤0.05 compared with the control. These results suggest that the vegetables, especially fluted pumpkin leaves could serve as a booster to the mineral and vitamin contents of Okpa. © Medwell Journals, 2012.

Adedokun I.I.,Imo State Polytechnic | Onuegbu N.C.,Federal University of Technology Owerri
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

The physical examination of the fruit of African pear (Dacryodes edulis) selected from different parent trees was investigated, three-stage modified traditional method was used for the extraction of oil from the pulp and percentage yield was examined. The oil samples were characterized for physico-chemical properties. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) detected on some of the physical properties of the fruit and chemical characteristics of the extracted oil samples. The maximum values of physical parameters found were fruit weight 31±0.22 g, fruit length 6.64±0.1 cm, width II 2.86±0.1 cm and 18.9±0.12 g for pulp weight. The percentage oil yield range from 41-47%. The result of chemical properties showed a maximum of acid value 0.46 mgKOH/g, %FFA 0.26, saponification of 189.77 mgKOH/g, peroxide and iodine values of 22.75 mg/g and 37.11 wijs respectively. The oil physical properties discovered melting point of 78°C, smoke point of 185°C and flash point of 278°C. The results obtained in this study further reveal the potentials of oil from pulp of African pear as a substitute for conventional vegetable oil and industrial applications, since most of the values fells within the range of value for the reference standard. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2011.

Agbabiaka L.A.,Federal University of Technology Owerri | Anukam K.U.,Imo state Polytechnic | Nwachukwu V.N.,Federal University of Technology Owerri
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

An eight (8) weeks experiment was carried out to determine the nutritive potential of dried rumen digesta as replacement for soybean meal in diets of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. One hundred and fifty Nile Tilapia fingerlings were assigned to five different diets such that Dried Rumen Digesta (DRD) replaced soybean meal at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% represented by Ti, T2, T3, T4 and Ts respectively in a completely randomized design. Result showed that all fish fed DRD based diets performed better than the control group. There was significant difference (p<0.05) in weight gain among the control groups and those fed DRD based diets. Evaluation on feed intake and feed conversion ratio showed significant difference among the control and DRD groups (p<0.05). This study revealed that DRD at 40% dietary inclusion could replace soybean in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings without compromising growth. The trial lasted for eight (8) weeks. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2011.

Madu A.N.,Crawford University | Njoku P.C.,Federal University of Technology Owerri | Iwuoha G.N.,University of Nigeria | Agbasi U.M.,Imo State Polytechnic
International Journal of Physical Sciences | Year: 2011

The formation of gold nanoparticles has been studied via the reduction of the metal salts in different Ionic Liquids (Ils) based on the 1-alkyl-3-methyl-imidazolium cation and different anions. Particles were grown at different temperatures for 24 h. The structure and morphology of the resulting nanomaterials has been studied via wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and by spectroscopic techniques. Electron microscopic measurements reveal large differences between both the samples grown at different temperatures and in different ILs. The comparison between the different temperatures, but within one IL shows that 1- ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium methane sulfonate (Emim) (MS) is the most straightforward IL to study in the case of gold nanoparticles. In this IL, the gold particles are always spherical and have a diameter of 5 to 7 nm. The significant change that occurs with increasing temperature is the aggregation of more and more gold particles into relatively well ordered supracrystalline aggregates at 180°C after 24 h. Aggregation with increasing temperature is qualitatively also supported by the UV/Vis data which show a decrease in the surface plasmon band with increasing reaction temperature. The formation of the somewhat larger particles at 140°C could be due to Ostwald ripening. If Ostwald ripening indeed takes place in (Emim) (ES), this suggests that (Emim) (ES) is not able to completely stabilize the small particles with a diameter of only a few nanometers. This is in contrast to (Emim) (MS). © 2011 Academic Journals.

Aju P.C.,Imo State Polytechnic | Ezeibekwe I.O.,Imo State University
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2010

Biodiversity is becoming one of the major environmental issues of our times. The basic problem is the increased rate of extinction as a result of expanding human population, resource exploitation, land clearing and land use development. Biodiversity by definition refers to the life forms on earth and include the millions of plants, animals and micro-organisms, the genes they contain and the intricate ecosystems they help built into the living environment. Some 1.4 million species have been described but biologists now believe the total number is between 10 and 80 million. The question that may readily come to mind is why the interest in biodiversity and its conservation? Of course, biodiversity conservation is important because it forms the major part of our life-support systems. For instance biodiversity constitute the source of all our food, much of our raw materials, a wide range of goods and services and genetic materials for agriculture, medicine, industry and commerce worth millions of dollars per year. For Nigeria and other African countries, biodiversity is of critical importance to our survival as our livelihood is dependent on having free and open access to a great variety of biological resources for food, fuel, medicine, housing materials, farm implement and economic security. Unfortunately, these biological wealth are today seriously threatened. The greatest threat is habitat destruction and one of such habitats is the tropical rainforest. Estimated to contain between 50 and 90% of the earths species, tropical forest is the major storehouse of biodiversity. This review paper therefore tried to bring to the front the issue of biodiversity, its importance and how it is threatened as a way of creating the necessary awareness needed for its conservation. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Emmanuel E.,Imo State University | Nwabueze D.E.,Nnamdi Azikiwe University | Chukwuma A.,Imo State Polytechnic
2nd International Conference on Emerging and Sustainable Technologies for Power and ICT in a Developing Society, IEEE NIGERCON 2013 - Proceedings | Year: 2013

Election management is an aspect of administration that deals with organizing, conducting and publishing of reliable and generally acceptable election result. In Nigeria, the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) is the statutory body charged with the election management. This paper is motivated by the fact that in Nigeria, getting reliable and generally accepted election result by using paper ballot appears unrealistic due to election fraud and violence especially during the climax of the voting or vote counting. The objective of this study is to determine the cost and benefits of information technology (I.T)-based Election management with the traditional voting pattern using ballot papers. The statistical descriptive research Design which involves the basic steps as identification of population, determination of required sample size and selection of sample was used. It was observed that because of its transparent modus operandi, I.T-based electoral management is less prone to electoral fraud and increases the electoral participation in politics as shown in the responses to questionnaires and personal interviews conducted. The authors believe very strongly that appropriate deployment of Information Technology in the electoral process is very likely to enhance voter's confidence and acceptability of result. © 2013 IEEE.

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