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Favennec M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Favennec M.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Favennec M.,Institute Pasteur Of Lille | Favennec M.,European Genomic Institute for Diabetes EGID | And 45 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2015

Objective This study characterized the kynurenine pathway (KP) in human obesity by evaluating circulating levels of kynurenines and the expression of KP enzymes in adipose tissue. Methods Tryptophan and KP metabolite levels were measured in serum of individuals from the D.E.S.I.R. cohort (case-cohort study: 212 diabetic, 836 randomly sampled) and in women with obesity, diabetic or normoglycemic, from the ABOS cohort (n = 100). KP enzyme gene expressions were analyzed in omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue of women from the ABOS cohort, in human primary adipocytes and in monocyte-derived macrophages. Results In the D.E.S.I.R. cohort, kynurenine levels were positively associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 4.68 × 10-19) and with a higher HOMA2-IR insulin resistance index (P = 6.23 × 10-4). The levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, and quinolinic acid were associated with higher BMI (P < 0.05). The expression of several KP enzyme genes (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 [IDO1], kynureninase [KYNU], kynurenine 3-monooxygenase [KMO], and kynurenine aminotransferase III [CCBL2]) was increased in the omental adipose tissue of women with obesity compared to lean (P < 0.05), and their expression was induced by proinflammatory cytokines in human primary adipocytes (P < 0.05), except for KMO that is not expressed in these cells. The expressions of IDO1, KYNU, KMO, and CCBL2 were higher in proinflammatory than in anti-inflammatory macrophages (P < 0.05). Conclusions In the context of obesity, the presence of macrophages in adipose tissue may contribute to diverting KP toward KMO activation. © 2015 The Obesity Society.


Heng B.,Macquarie University | Lim C.K.,Macquarie University | Lovejoy D.B.,Macquarie University | Bessede A.,ImmuSmol | And 2 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

Breast cancer (BrCa) is the leading cause of cancer related death in women. While current diagnostic modalities provide opportunities for early medical intervention, significant proportions of breast tumours escape treatment and metastasize. Gaining increasing recognition as a factor in tumour metastasis is the local immuno-surveillance environment. Following identification of the role played by the enzyme indoleamine dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) in mediating maternal foetal tolerance, the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan metabolism has emerged as a key metabolic pathway contributing to immune escape. In inflammatory conditions activation of the KP leads to the production of several immune-modulating metabolites including kynurenine, kynurenic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, anthranilic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, picolinic acid and quinolinic acid. KP over-activation was first described in BrCa patients in the early 1960s. More evidence has since emerged to suggest that the IDO1 is elevated in advanced BrCa patients and is associated with poor prognosis. Further, IDO1 positive breast tumours have a positive correlation with the density of immune suppressive Foxp3+ T regulatory cells and lymph node metastasis. The analysis of clinical microarray data in invasive BrCa compared to normal tissue showed, using two microarray databank (cBioportal and TCGA), that 86.3% and 91.4% BrCa patients have altered KP enzyme expression respectively. Collectively, these data highlight the key roles played by KP activation in BrCa, particularly in basal BrCa subtypes where expression of most KP enzymes was altered. Accordingly, the use of KP enzyme inhibitors in addition to standard chemotherapy regimens may present a viable therapeutic approach.


Fazio F.,I.R.C.C.S Neuromed | Zappulla C.,I.R.C.C.S Neuromed | Notartomaso S.,I.R.C.C.S Neuromed | Busceti C.,I.R.C.C.S Neuromed | And 11 more authors.
Neuropharmacology | Year: 2014

Cinnabarinic acid (CA) is an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway which acts as an orthosteric agonist of type-4 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu4). We now report that systemic administration of CA (0.1-10 mg/kg, i.p.) was highly protective against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55) peptide, which models multiple sclerosis in mice. Full protection against EAE required daily injections of CA since the time of immunization, similarly to what reported for the mGlu4 enhancer N-phenyl-7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1acarboxamide (PHCCC). CA treatment boosted an immune response dominated by regulatory T (Treg) cells at the expenses of Th17 cells. In addition, exogenous CA enhanced endogenous CA formation in lymphocytes, suggesting the occurrence of a positive feedback loop sustaining immune tolerance. To examine whether activation of mGlu4 could account for the protective activity of CA against EAE, we used mGlu4 knockout mice. As expected, these mice displayed a more severe form of EAE in response to immunization. CA was still protective against EAE in mGlu4-deficient mice, although its action was significantly reduced both at high and low CA doses. This suggests that the action of CA against neuroinflammation involves multiple mechanisms including the activation of mGlu4. These data further suggest that CA is one possible bridge between activation of the kynurenine pathway and immune tolerance aimed at restraining neuroinflammation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Puccetti P.,University of Perugia | Fallarino F.,University of Perugia | Italiano A.,Institute Bergonie | Soubeyran I.,Institute Bergonie | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Tumor immune escape mechanisms are being regarded as suitable targets for tumor therapy. Among these, tryptophan catabolism plays a central role in creating an immunosuppressive environment, leading to tolerance to potentially immunogenic tumor antigens. Tryptophan catabolism is initiated by either indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1/-2) or tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (TDO2), resulting in biostatic tryptophan starvation and L-kynurenine production, which participates in shaping the dynamic relationship of the host's immune system with tumor cells. Current immunotherapy strategies include blockade of IDO-1/-2 or TDO2, to restore efficient antitumor responses. Patients who might benefit from this approach are currently identified based on expression analyses of IDO-1/-2 or TDO2 in tumor tissue and/or enzymatic activity assessed by kynurenine/tryptophan ratios in the serum. We developed a monoclonal antibody targeting L-kynurenine as an in situ biomarker of IDO-1/-2 or TDO2 activity. Using Tissue Micro Array technology and immunostaining, colorectal and breast cancer patients were phenotyped based on L-kynurenine production. In colorectal cancer L-kynurenine was not unequivocally associated with IDO-1 expression, suggesting that the mere expression of tryptophan catabolic enzymes is not sufficiently informative for optimal immunotherapy. © 2015 Puccetti et al.


Malleter M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Malleter M.,University of Rennes 1 | Tauzin S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Tauzin S.,University of Rennes 1 | And 20 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) lacking estrogen and progesterone receptors and HER2 amplification have a relatively high risk of metastatic dissemination, but the mechanistic basis for this risk is not understood. Here, we report that serum levels of CD95 ligand (CD95L) are higher in patients with TNBC than in other patients with breast cancer. Metalloprotease-mediated cleavage of CD95L expressed by endothelial cells surrounding tumors generates a gradient that promotes cell motility due to the formation of an unconventional CD95-containing receptosome called the motility-inducing signaling complex. The formation of this complex was instrumental for Nox3-driven reactive oxygen species generation. Mechanistic investigations revealed a Yes-Orai1-EGFR-PI3K pathway that triggered migration of TNBC cells exposed to CD95L. Our findings establish a prometastatic function for metalloprotease-cleaved CD95L in TNBCs, revisiting its role in carcinogenesis. ©2013 AACR.

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