Immunosciences Laboratory Inc.

Laboratory, United States

Immunosciences Laboratory Inc.

Laboratory, United States
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Kharrazian D.,Loma Linda University | Vojdani A.,Loma Linda University | Vojdani A.,Immunosciences Laboratory Inc
Journal of Applied Toxicology | Year: 2017

Evidence continues to increase linking autoimmunity and other complex diseases to the chemicals commonly found in our environment. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic monomer used widely in many forms, from food containers to toys, medical products and many others. The potential for BPA to participate as a triggering agent for autoimmune diseases is likely due to its known immunological influences. The goal of this research was to determine if immune reactivity to BPA has any correlation with neurological antibodies. BPA binds to a target enzyme called protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). Myelin basic protein (MBP) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) are neuronal antigens that are target sites for neuroinflammation and neuroautoimmunity. We determined the co-occurrence of anti-MBP and anti-MOG antibodies with antibodies made against BPA bound to human serum albumin in 100 healthy human subjects. Correlation between BPA to PDI, BPA to MOG, BPA to MBP, PDI to MBP and PDI to MOG were all highly statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The outcome of our study suggests that immune reactivity to BPA-human serum albumin and PDI has a high degree of statistical significance with substantial correlation with both MBP and MOG antibody levels. This suggests that BPA may be a trigger for the production of antibodies against PDI, MBP and MOG. Immune reactivity to BPA bound to human tissue proteins may be a contributing factor to neurological autoimmune disorders. Further research is needed to determine the exact relationship of these antibodies with neuroautoimmunities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Vojdani A.,Immunosciences Laboratory Inc. | Vojdani A.,Loma Linda University
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2017

Studies show that patients with celiac disease react not only with gluten wheat proteins but also with non-gluten wheat components. Our goal was to measure IgG or IgA antibodies against wheat proteins or peptides that would provide the most sensitive method for the detection of wheat immune reaction in children with autism spectrum disorder, and patients with Crohn's and celiac disease (CD). Using ELISA, we measured these antibodies against various gluten and non-gluten wheat proteins. Compared to controls in all three conditions, the strongest reaction was against CXCR3-binding gliadin peptide, followed by a wheat protein mixture, and α-gliadin 33-mer peptide. We determined that a sample that strongly reacted against non-gluten proteins also reacted strongly against gluten proteins. We also found that IgA antibodies against CXCR3-binding gliadin peptide were strongly reactive in a subgroup of 33% in the autism group, 42% in the Crohn's group, and all tested samples with CD. The results indicate that measuring IgG and IgA antibodies against non-gluten proteins adds nothing to the pathologic relevance of these antibodies. Further research is needed on CXCR3-binding gliadin peptide antibodies as a possible biomarker and as a guide for dietary elimination in CD, Crohn's disease and a subgroup of children with ASD. © 2017 The Authors


Vojdani A.,CEO of Immunosciences Labs Inc | Vojdani A.,Loma Linda University | Vojdani C.,Immunosciences Laboratory Inc.
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine | Year: 2015

Artificial food dyes are made from petroleum and have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the enhancement of the color of processed foods. They are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries to increase the appeal and acceptability of their products. Synthetic food colorants can achieve hues not possible for natural colorants and are cheaper, more easily available, and last longer. However, since the use of artificial food coloring has become widespread, many allergic and other immune reactive disorders have increasingly been reported. During the past 50 y, the amount of synthetic dye used in foods has increased by 500%. Simultaneously, an alarming rise has occurred in behavioral problems in children, such as aggression, attention deficit disorder (ADD), and attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The ingestion of food delivers the greatest foreign antigenic load that challenges the immune system. Artificial colors can also be absorbed via the skin through cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. The molecules of synthetic colorants are small, and the immune system finds it difficult to defend the body against them. They can also bond to food or body proteins and, thus, are able to act in stealth mode to circumvent and disrupt the immune system. The consumption of synthetic food colors, and their ability to bind with body proteins, can have significant immunological consequences. This consumption can activate the inflammatory cascade, can result in the induction of intestinal permeability to large antigenic molecules, and could lead to cross-reactivities, autoimmunities, and even neurobehavioral disorders. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently found a 41% increase in diagnoses of ADHD in boys of high-school age during the past decade. More shocking is the legal amount of artificial colorants allowed by the FDA in the foods, drugs, and cosmetics that we consume and use every day. The consuming public is largely unaware of the perilous truth behind the deceptive allure of artificial color. © 2015, InnoVision Communications. All right rserved.


Vojdani A.,Immunosciences Laboratory Inc. | Kharrazian D.,Bastyr University | Mukherjee P.S.,Boise State University
Journal of Applied Toxicology | Year: 2015

In spite of numerous research efforts, the exact etiology of autoimmune diseases remains largely unknown. Genetics and environmental factors, including xenobiotics, are believed to be involved in the induction of autoimmune disease. Some environmental chemicals, acting as haptens, can bind to a high-molecular-weight carrier protein such as human serum albumin (HSA), causing the immune system to misidentify self-tissue as an invader and launch an immune response against it, leading to autoimmunity. This study aimed to examine the percentage of blood samples from healthy donors in which chemical agents mounted immune challenges and produced antibodies against HSA-bound chemicals. The levels of specific antibodies against 12 different chemicals bound to HSA were measured by ELISA in serum from 400 blood donors. We found that 10% (IgG) and 17% (IgM) of tested individuals showed significant antibody elevation against aflatoxin-HSA adduct. The percentage of elevation against the other 11 chemicals ranged from 8% to 22% (IgG) and 13% to 18% (IgM). Performance of serial dilution and inhibition of the chemical-antibody reaction by specific antigens but not by non-specific antigens were indicative of the specificity of these antibodies. Although we lack information about chemical exposure in the tested individuals, detection of antibodies against various protein adducts may indicate chronic exposure to these chemical haptens in about 20% of the tested individuals. Currently the pathological significance of these antibodies in human blood is still unclear, and this protein adduct formation could be one of the mechanisms by which environmental chemicals induce autoimmune reactivity in a significant percentage of the population. © 2014. The Authors.


Vojdani A.,Immunosciences Laboratory Inc | Vojdani A.,Cyrex Laboratories LLC
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine | Year: 2013

The purpose of this review is to demonstrate that an intestine leaky to small molecules can be impermeable to large antigenic molecules. The author proposes that the permeability of the epithelium to very small sugar molecules such as lactulose/mannitol-used for the past 50 years to gauge intestinal permeability-does not necessarily correlate with epithelial permeability to macromolecules. This article begins with the history and science behind the use of small sugars to measure permeability, a method developed in 1899. The lactulose/mannitol test may give useful information regarding the overall condition of the digestive tract; however, the author suggests that the test is not indicative of the transport of macromolecules such as bacterial toxins and food antigens, which have the capacity to damage the structure of the intestinal barrier and/or challenge the immune system. This article describes the various mechanisms and physiological transport pathways through which increased antigen uptake may result in immunological reactions to food antigens and bacterial lipopolysaccharides, resulting in the pathogenesis of disease. Finally, the article presents evidence indicating that increased intestinal, antigenic permeability plays a key role in the development of various inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Therefore, more knowledge about the epithelium's permeability to large molecules undoubtedly contributes not only to early detection but also to secondary prevention of many inflammatory autoimmune, neuroimmune, and neurodegenerative disorders.


Vojdani A.,Immunosciences Laboratory Inc.
Autoimmune Diseases | Year: 2014

Autoimmune diseases have registered an alarming rise worldwide in recent years. Accumulated evidence indicates that the immune system's ability to distinguish self from nonself is negatively impacted by genetic factors and environmental triggers. Genetics is certainly a factor, but since it normally takes a very long time for the human genetic pattern to change enough to register on a worldwide scale, increasingly the attention of studies has been focused on the environmental factors of a rapidly changing and evolving civilization. New technology, new industries, new inventions, new chemicals and drugs, and new foods and diets are constantly and rapidly being introduced in this fast-paced ever-changing world. Toxicants, infections, epitope spreading, dysfunctions of immune homeostasis, and dietary components can all have an impact on the body's delicate immune recognition system. Although the precise etiology and pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases are still unknown, it would appear from the collated studies that there are common mechanisms in the immunopathogenesis of multiple autoimmune reactivities. Of particular interest is the citrullination of host proteins and their conversion to autoantigens by the aforementioned environmental triggers. The identification of these specific triggers of autoimmune reactivity is essential then for the development of new therapies for autoimmune diseases. © 2014 Aristo Vojdani.


Burazor I.,Institute for Rehabilitation | Vojdani A.,Immunosciences Laboratory Inc.
Autoimmune Diseases | Year: 2014

Background. It has been hypothesized that various infective agents may activate immune reactions as part of the atherosclerotic process. We aimed to investigate the interrelationship between chronic exposure to oral pathogens and immune-inflammatory response in patients with acute coronary atherothrombosis. Patients and Methods. The study included 200 participants from Serbia: 100 patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), and 100 age- and sex-matched controls. Antibodies to oral anaerobes and aerobes were determined as well as autoantibodies to endothelial cells, beta-2 glycoprotein I, platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and anticardiolipin. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Results. The mean serum antibodies to oral anaerobes tended to be higher among subjects with MI (0.876 ± 0.303 versus 0.685 ± 0.172 OD, P < 0.001). Similarly, antibody levels against oral aerobes in patients were significantly different from controls. Antibodies against endothelial cell, beta-2 glycoprotein I, platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, anticardiolipin along with CRP and IL-6 were highly elevated in patients. The levels of antibodies to oral bacteria showed linear correlation with tissue antibodies, CRP and IL-6. Conclusion. Antibody response to chronic oral bacterial infections and host immune response against them may be responsible for the elevation of tissue antibodies and biomarkers of inflammation which are involved in acute coronary thrombosis development. © 2014 Ivana Burazor and Aristo Vojdani.


Vojdani A.,Immunosciences Laboratory Inc | Kharrazian D.,Bastyr University | Mukherjee P.S.,Boise State University
Nutrients | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to look for the presence of IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies against two widely consumed foods, wheat and milk, in a relatively large number of specimens. As wheat, milk, and their antigens have been found to be involved in neuroimmune disorders, we measured the co-occurrence of their antibodies against various neural antigens. We assessed the reactivity of sera from 400 donors to wheat and milk proteins, GAD-65, cerebellar, MBP, and MOG. Statistical analysis showed significant clustering when certain wheat and milk protein antibodies were cross-referenced with neural antibodies. Approximately half of the sera with antibody elevation against gliadin reacted significantly with GAD-65 and cerebellar peptides; about half of the sera with elevated antibodies against α + β-casein and milk butyrophilin also showed antibody elevation against MBP and MOG. Inhibition studies showed that only two out of four of the samples with elevated cerebellar or MOG antibodies could be inhibited by gliadin or α + β-casein, confirming individual variation in epitope recognition. We conclude that a subgroup of blood donors, due to a breakdown in immunological tolerance, may react and produce significant levels of antibodies (p-values less than 0.05) against wheat and milk antigens that cross-react with different neural antigens, which may have broader implications in the induction of neuroimmune reactivities. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Vojdani A.,Immunosciences Laboratory Inc. | Lambert J.,Immunosciences Laboratory Inc. | Kellermann G.,NeuroScience Inc.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2011

Abundant research has mapped the inflammatory pathways leading to autoimmunity and neuroinflammatory disorders. The latest T helper to be identified, Th17, through its proinflammatory cytokine IL-17, plays a pathogenic role in many inflammatory conditions. Today, healthcare providers have a wealth of anti-inflammatory agents from which to choose. On one hand, pharmaceutical companies market brand-name drugs direct to the public and physicians. Medical botanical knowledge, on the other hand, has been passed down from generation to generation. The demands for natural healing therapies have brought corresponding clinical and laboratory research studies to elucidate the medicinal properties of alternative practices. With a variety of options, it can be difficult to pinpoint the proper anti-inflammatory agent for each case presented. In this review, the authors highlight a vast array of anti-inflammatory medicaments ranging from drugs to vitamins and from botanicals to innate molecules. This compilation may serve as a guide for complimentary and alternative healthcare providers who need to target neuroinflammation driven by Th17 and its inflammatory cytokine IL-17. By understanding the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory agents, CAM practitioners can tailor therapeutic interventions to fit the needs of the patient, thereby providing faster relief from inflammatory complaints. Copyright © 2011 Aristo Vojdani et al.


Patent
Immunosciences Laboratory Inc. and Cyrex Laboratories LLC | Date: 2014-03-04

Methods, assays, and apparatus are disclosed for testing of antigens associated with intestinal and/or blood-brain barrier permeability. For example, blood, saliva or other bodily fluid can be tested for binding (1) to a bacterial toxin (preferably a lipopolysaccharide), and (2) binding to tissue antigens selected from at least one of (a) a gut-related antigen and (b) a blood brain barrier-related antigen. Analysis of test results can be used to assist in detecting and diagnosing diseases associated with leaky gut syndrome (whether due to paracellular or transcellular pathways, and whether due to bacterial toxins or some other cause) and/or to diseases associated with excessive blood brain barrier permeability, which are contemplated herein to include both neuroinflammation and/or neuroautoimmunity conditions, and especially amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinsons disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimers, or peripheral neuropathy, and major depression.

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