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North Bethesda, MD, United States

Meylan F.,Immunoregulation Section | Hawley E.T.,Immunoregulation Section | Barron L.,Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases | Barlow J.L.,MRCLaboratory of Molecular Biology | And 11 more authors.
Mucosal Immunology

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-family cytokine TL1A (TNFSF15) costimulates T cells and promotes diverse T cell-dependent models of autoimmune disease through its receptor DR3. TL1A polymorphisms also confer susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we find that allergic pathology driven by constitutive TL1A expression depends on interleukin-13 (IL-13), but not on T, NKT, mast cells, or commensal intestinal flora. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) express surface DR3 and produce IL-13 and other type 2 cytokines in response to TL1A. DR3 is required for ILC2 expansion and function in the setting of T cell-dependent and -independent models of allergic disease. By contrast, DR3-deficient ILC2 can still differentiate, expand, and produce IL-13 when stimulated by IL-25 or IL-33, and mediate expulsion of intestinal helminths. These data identify costimulation of ILC2 as a novel function of TL1A important for allergic lung disease, and suggest that TL1A may be a therapeutic target in these settings. © 2014 Society for Mucosal Immunology. Source

Meylan F.,Immunoregulation Section | Song Y.-J.,Immunoregulation Section | Fuss I.,Laboratory of Host Defenses | Villarreal S.,Immunoregulation Section | And 8 more authors.
Mucosal Immunology

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-family cytokine TL1A (TNFSF15) costimulates T cells through its receptor DR3 (TNFRSF25) and is required for autoimmune pathology driven by diverse T-cell subsets. TL1A has been linked to human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but its pathogenic role is not known. We generated transgenic mice that constitutively express TL1A in T cells or dendritic cells. These mice spontaneously develop IL-13-dependent inflammatory small bowel pathology that strikingly resembles the intestinal response to nematode infections. These changes were dependent on the presence of a polyclonal T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, suggesting that they are driven by components in the intestinal flora. Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)-positive regulatory T cells (Tregs) were present in increased numbers despite the fact that TL1A suppresses the generation of inducible Tregs. Finally, blocking TL1A-DR3 interactions abrogates 2,4,6 trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis, indicating that these interactions influence other causes of intestinal inflammation as well. These results establish a novel link between TL1A and interleukin 13 (IL-13) responses that results in small intestinal inflammation, and also establish that TL1A-DR3 interactions are necessary and sufficient for T cell-dependent IBD. © 2011 Society for Mucosal Immunology. Source

Ramaswamy M.,Immunoregulation Section | Cruz A.C.,Immunoregulation Section | Cleland S.Y.,Immunoregulation Section | Deng M.,Immunoregulation Section | And 3 more authors.
Cell Death and Differentiation

Elimination of autoreactive CD4+ T cells through the death receptor Fas/CD95 is an important mechanism of immunological self-tolerance. Fas deficiency results in systemic autoimmunity, yet does not affect the kinetics of T-cell responses to acute antigen exposure or infection. Here we show that Fas and TCR-induced apoptosis are largely restricted to CD4+ T cells with an effector memory phenotype (effector memory T cells (TEM)), whereas central memory and activated naïve CD4+ T cells are relatively resistant to both. Sensitivity of TEM to Fas-induced apoptosis depends on enrichment of Fas in lipid raft microdomains, and is linked to more efficient formation of the Fas death-inducing signaling complex. These results explain how Fas can cull T cells reactive against self-antigens without affecting acute immune responses. This work also identifies Fas-induced apoptosis as a possible immunotherapeutic strategy to eliminate TEM linked to the pathogenesis of a number of autoimmune diseases. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

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