Columbia, MO, United States
Columbia, MO, United States

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Jenkins P.A.,SpectraMedics Pty Ltd. | Jenkins P.A.,SpectraVET Inc. | Jenkins P.A.,ImmunoPhotonics Inc. | Carroll J.D.,THOR Photomedicine Ltd.
Photomedicine and Laser Surgery | Year: 2011

Background: Dose and beam parameters are critical for successful laser, LED, and other light therapy treatments; however, in our experience, researchers frequently make critical errors and omissions when submitting papers for publication. Journals frequently publish studies with missing data, mathematical errors, and no reported verification of beam parameters. This makes reproducibility impossible, and further confounds an already complex subject. Objective: This article is intended to be a reference document for non-physicist researchers conducting low-level laser therapy (LLLT) laboratory studies and clinical trials to help them design and report the beam and dose aspects of their trials. Recommendations: It provides a checklist to help LLLT researchers understand and report all the necessary parameters for a repeatable scientific study. It includes the eight most important beam parameters to report, which are: wavelength, power, irradiation time, beam area at the skin or culture surface (this is not necessarily the same as the aperture size), pulse parameters, anatomical location, number of treatments, and interval between treatments. The three commonly used dose parameters are time, energy, and energy density. In addition, more thorough reporting would include coherence, application technique (contact, projection, scanning, pressure), beam profile, and spectral width, as these may also be considered important. Beam power often decreases as the device warms up and as the device ages; therefore, this should be checked routinely during an experiment/trial. Measurements of beam area and beam power require special instruments and trained technicians to operate them. Power measurements should be taken before, after, and at frequent intervals during research trials. Conclusion: Reviewers should insist that the minimum eight most important beam parameters are included, and authors should take care to measure and record these accurately before, during, and after an experiment or clinical trial. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Li X.,Chinese PLA General Hospital | Min M.,Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical science | Du N.,Chinese PLA General Hospital | Gu Y.,Chinese PLA General Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Clinical and Developmental Immunology | Year: 2013

With the development of cancer immunotherapy, cancer vaccine has become a novel modality for cancer treatment, and the important role of adjuvant has been realized recently. Chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives have shown their advantages as adjuvants for cancer vaccine. In this paper, the adjuvant properties of chitin and chitosan were discussed, and some detailed information about glycated chitosan and chitosan nanoparticles was also presented to illustrate the trend for future development. © 2013 Xiaosong Li et al.


Lam S.S.K.,ImmunoPhotonics Inc. | Zhou F.,University of Central Oklahoma | Hode T.,ImmunoPhotonics Inc. | Nordquist R.E.,ImmunoPhotonics Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Discovery Medicine | Year: 2015

Since the invention of Coley's toxin by William Coley in early 1900s, the path for cancer immunotherapy has been a convoluted one. Although still not considered standard of care, with the FDA approval of trastuzumab, Provenge and ipilimumab, the medical and scientific community has started to embrace the possibility that immunotherapy could be a new hope for cancer patients with otherwise untreatable metastatic diseases. This review aims to summarize the development of some major strategies in cancer immunotherapy, from the earliest peptide vaccine and transfer of tumor specific antibodies/T cells to the more recent dendritic cell (DC) vaccines, whole cell tumor vaccines, and checkpoint blockade therapy. Discussion of some major milestones and obstacles in the shaping of the field and the future perspectives is included. Photoimmunotherapy is also reviewed as an example of emerging new therapies combining phototherapy and immunotherapy. © 2015, Discovery Medicine.


Hode T.,ImmunoPhotonics Inc. | Jenkins P.,Irradia United States | Jordison S.,Irradia AB | Hode L.,Swedish Laser Medical Society
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE | Year: 2011

In a series of experiments we investigated the extent to which coherence is preserved in tissue. We investigated whether the decrease in coherence length is dependent upon the coherence length of the illuminating light and possibly also if the light is polarized. We compared highly coherent light from a HeNe laser, and less coherent light from a semiconductor laser, in scattering media such as raw ground beef. We studied the laser speckle contrast after passing through 1 - 2 cm of meat. The conclusion is that the laser light is still coherent enough to form laser speckles after passing through a 2 cm thickness of meat. © 2011 SPIE.


Li X.,Chinese PLA General Hospital | Li X.,University of Central Oklahoma | Ferrel G.L.,Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins | Guerra M.C.,ImmunoPhotonics Inc. | And 6 more authors.
Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences | Year: 2011

We report our preliminary results of a pilot clinical trial of late-stage breast cancer patients treated by laser immunotherapy (LIT), a local intervention using an 805 nm laser for non-invasive irradiation, indocyanine green for selective thermal effect, and immunoadjuvant (glycated chitosan) for immunological stimulation. Ten breast cancer patients were enrolled in this study; all patients were considered to be out of other available treatment options. Toxicity was individually evaluated through physical exams and laboratory tests. Adverse reactions only occurred in the area of treatment due to photothermal injury and local administration of immunoadjuvant. No grade 3 or 4 side effects were observed. Treatment efficacy of LIT was also evaluated by physical examination and tomography. In 8 patients available for evaluation, the objective response rate was 62.5% and the clinical beneficial response rate was 75%. While the study is still ongoing, the initial outcomes of this clinical trial show that LIT is well tolerated and is promising in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry and Owner Societies.


Trademark
ImmunoPhotonics Inc. | Date: 2013-05-14

biological preparations for medical purposes.


Patent
ImmunoPhotonics Inc. | Date: 2013-01-17

The present invention relates generally to therapeutic compositions comprising chitosan-derived compositions used in connection with methods for treating neoplasms, such as for instance, malignant lung, thyroid and kidney neoplasms, and other types of malignant neoplasms, and other medical disorders.


PubMed | ImmunoPhotonics Inc., University of Central Oklahoma and Massachusetts General Hospital
Type: | Journal: Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A | Year: 2016

Immunotherapy has become one of the fastest growing areas of cancer research. A promising in situ autologous cancer vaccine (inCVAX) uses a novel immune activator, N-dihydrogalactochitosan (GC), that possesses the ability to stimulate dendritic cells (DC). inCVAX is a combination treatment procedure involving treatment of the tumor with a thermal near-infrared laser to liberate whole cell tumor antigens, followed by injection of GC (a glucosamine polymer with galactose attached to the amino groups) into the treated tumor thereby inducing a systemic anti-tumor immune response. Regression of both the treated tumor and distant untreated metastases has been observed in both nonclinical and clinical settings following inCVAX. We studied the stimulatory action of GC on relatively immature DCs (DC2.4 cell line) in vitro. GC at 1mg/mL was a potent stimulator for DC with limited toxicity, giving increased expression of major histocompatibility complex class 2 (MHC II), CD80, and CD11c. Confocal imaging also revealed qualitatively increased uptake of antigen (Texas red-labeled ovalbumin) by DCs after the introduction of GC. To visualize cellular uptake, GC was conjugated with FITC-fluorophore revealing its cellular internalization after 8 hours. In some cases GC was more effective than the toxic TLR4 agonist, lipopolysaccharide. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Missouri and ImmunoPhotonics Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical & cellular immunology | Year: 2016

Manipulation of immune system toward the rejection of established cancers has become the standard of care in some patients. Here we propose the development of an


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