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Ide T.,Aichi University | Komoto S.,Aichi University | Higo-Moriguchi K.,Aichi University | Htun K.W.,Nay Pyi Taw General Hospital Central Myanmar | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

G12 rotaviruses are emerging rotavirus strains causing severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. However, the whole genomes of only a few G12 strains have been fully sequenced and analyzed. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the complete genomes of six G12 strains (RVA/Human-tc/MMR/A14/2011/G12P[8], RVA/Human-tc/MMR/A23/2011/G12P[6], RVA/Human-tc/MMR/A25/2011/G12P[8], RVA/Human-tc/MMR/P02/2011/G12P[8], RVA/Human-tc/MMR/P39/2011/G12P[8], and RVA/Human-tc/MMR/P43/2011/G12P[8]) detected in six stool samples from children with acute gastroenteritis in Myanmar. On whole genomic analysis, all six Myanmarese G12 strains were found to have a Wa-like genetic backbone: G12-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1 for strains A14, A25, P02, P39, and P43, and G12-P[6]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1 for strain A23. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most genes of the six strains examined in this study were genetically related to globally circulating human G1, G3, G9, and G12 strains. Of note is that the NSP4 gene of strain A23 exhibited the closest relationship with the cognate genes of human-like bovine strains as well as human strains, suggesting the occurrence of reassortment between human and bovine strains. Furthermore, strains A14, A25, P02, P39, and P43 were very closely related to one another in all the 11 gene segments, indicating derivation of the five strains from a common origin. On the other hand, strain A23 consistently formed distinct clusters as to all the 11 gene segments, indicating a distinct origin of strain A23 from that of strains A14, A25, P02, P39, and P43. To our knowledge, this is the first report on whole genome-based characterization of G12 strains that have emerged in Myanmar. Our observations will provide important insights into the evolutionary dynamics of spreading G12 rotaviruses in Asia. © 2015 Ide et al.


Rahman S.,Immunology Research Institute in Gifu | Higo-Moriguchi K.,Aichi University | Htun K.W.,Central Myanmar | Taniguchi K.,Aichi University | And 12 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2012

This study aims to evaluate the effect of hyperimmune immunoglobulin Y (IgY) against human rotavirus (HRV) among pediatric patients receiving standard supportive treatment for rotavirus-associated diarrhea mostly with an enteric non-cholera co-pathogen in a hospital setting. Two natural HRV reassortant clinical strains ATCC VR 2273 and ATCC VR 2274 were used as mixed immunizing antigens in poultry hens to generate anti-HRV IgY (Rotamix IgY). The Rotamix IgY was used in laboratory and clinical studies against control or placebo IgY. The control or placebo IgY was prepared using tissue culture medium from mock-infected MA104 cell line as antigen for poultry immunization. In vitro, Rotamix IgY exhibited multi-serotypic cross neutralization activities along with synergistic effects against major global serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4 and other human or animal rotavirus strains when compared with mono-specific IgY. Suckling mice (ICR strain) pre-treated orally once with Rotamix IgY and then challenged with rotavirus 3. h later showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in frequency (. p<. 0.05) and duration (. p<. 0.05) of diarrhea compared to placebo IgY-treated mice. Out of 114 children aged between 3 and 14 months and with diarrhea upon admission in a Myanmar hospital, 54 dehydrated and rotavirus-positive children were randomized into Rotamix IgY group and placebo IgY group. Of these, only 52 children had complete data with . n=. 26 children per study group. Ninety-two percent of patients in each of these groups were positive for co-infecting enteric non-cholera pathogen and all patients received standard supportive therapy for diarrhea. The patients were monitored for volume and duration of oral rehydration fluid (ORF) and intravenous fluid (IVF) intake, daily stool frequency and overall duration of diarrhea, and frequency and duration of rotavirus shedding. Compared to placebo IgY group, the Rotamix IgY group had statistically significant reduction in mean ORF intake (. p=. 0.004), mean duration of intravenous fluid administration (. p=. 0.03), mean duration of diarrhea from day of admission (. p<. 0.01) and mean duration of rotavirus clearance from stool from day of admission (. p=. 0.05). Overall, our novel approach using oral Rotamix IgY for rotavirus-infected children mostly with non-cholera enteric pathogen co-infection appears to be a promising, safe and effective adjunct to management of acute diarrhea in pediatric patients. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Hirose M.,Gifu University | Ando T.,Gifu University | Shofiqur R.,Immunology Research Institute in Gifu | Umeda K.,Immunology Research Institute in Gifu | And 5 more authors.
Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Background: There is completely no report about both hen egg anti-lipase immunoglobulin yolk (IgY) and its anti-obesity action. Thus, we tried to isolate and characterize a novel anti-lipase immunoglobulin from hen egg yolk. Moreover, we investigated whether hen egg yolk anti-lipase IgY inhibits pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and examined its ability to prevent obesity in a murine high fat diet-induced obesity model. Methods. We determined the inhibitory action of Anti-lipase IgY on lipase activity in vitro. We also focused our evaluation on the anti-obesity properties of Anti-lipase IgY in a murine high fat diet-induced obesity model. Results: Anti-lipase IgY blocked porcine lipase activity with an IC§ssub§50§esub§ of 0.49 μM. Supplementing the high fat diet with only 0.2% (w/w) of Anti-lipase IgY for 35 days significantly decreased the weights of intraperitoneal adipose tissues, epididymal, mesenteric, retroperitoneal and perirenal adipose tissues, and the amounts of hepatic total lipid, triglyceride, and cholesterol. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the fecal excretion of triglyceride in the absence of diarrhea. Furthermore, Anti-lipase IgY treatment restored body weight gain to levels similar to mice fed with Control IgY. Conclusions: This study provides the first report of the development of anti-lipase IgY and the direct evidence that inhibition of pancreatic lipase using Anti-lipase IgY is an effective anti-obesity treatment due to the associated increase in fecal excretion of triglyceride. © 2013 Hirose et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


This study aims to evaluate the effect of hyperimmune immunoglobulin Y (IgY) against human rotavirus (HRV) among pediatric patients receiving standard supportive treatment for rotavirus-associated diarrhea mostly with an enteric non-cholera co-pathogen in a hospital setting. Two natural HRV reassortant clinical strains ATCC VR 2273 and ATCC VR 2274 were used as mixed immunizing antigens in poultry hens to generate anti-HRV IgY (Rotamix IgY). The Rotamix IgY was used in laboratory and clinical studies against control or placebo IgY. The control or placebo IgY was prepared using tissue culture medium from mock-infected MA104 cell line as antigen for poultry immunization. In vitro, Rotamix IgY exhibited multi-serotypic cross neutralization activities along with synergistic effects against major global serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4 and other human or animal rotavirus strains when compared with mono-specific IgY. Suckling mice (ICR strain) pre-treated orally once with Rotamix IgY and then challenged with rotavirus 3h later showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in frequency (p<0.05) and duration (p<0.05) of diarrhea compared to placebo IgY-treated mice. Out of 114 children aged between 3 and 14 months and with diarrhea upon admission in a Myanmar hospital, 54 dehydrated and rotavirus-positive children were randomized into Rotamix IgY group and placebo IgY group. Of these, only 52 children had complete data with n=26 children per study group. Ninety-two percent of patients in each of these groups were positive for co-infecting enteric non-cholera pathogen and all patients received standard supportive therapy for diarrhea. The patients were monitored for volume and duration of oral rehydration fluid (ORF) and intravenous fluid (IVF) intake, daily stool frequency and overall duration of diarrhea, and frequency and duration of rotavirus shedding. Compared to placebo IgY group, the Rotamix IgY group had statistically significant reduction in mean ORF intake (p=0.004), mean duration of intravenous fluid administration (p=0.03), mean duration of diarrhea from day of admission (p<0.01) and mean duration of rotavirus clearance from stool from day of admission (p=0.05). Overall, our novel approach using oral Rotamix IgY for rotavirus-infected children mostly with non-cholera enteric pathogen co-infection appears to be a promising, safe and effective adjunct to management of acute diarrhea in pediatric patients.

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