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Pal D.,Visva Bharati University | Dasgupta S.,Visva Bharati University | Dasgupta S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Kundu R.,Visva Bharati University | And 7 more authors.
Nature Medicine | Year: 2012

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has a key role in innate immunity by activating an inflammatory signaling pathway. Free fatty acids (FFAs) stimulate adipose tissue inflammation through the TLR4 pathway, resulting in insulin resistance. However, current evidence suggests that FFAs do not directly bind to TLR4, but an endogenous ligand for TLR4 remains to be identified. Here we show that fetuin-A (FetA) could be this endogenous ligand and that it has a crucial role in regulating insulin sensitivity via Tlr4 signaling in mice. FetA (officially known as Ahsg) knockdown in mice with insulin resistance caused by a high-fat diet (HFD) resulted in downregulation of Tlr4-mediated inflammatory signaling in adipose tissue, whereas selective administration of FetA induced inflammatory signaling and insulin resistance. FFA-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression in adipocytes occurred only in the presence of both FetA and Tlr4; removing either of them prevented FFA-induced insulin resistance. We further found that FetA, through its terminal galactoside moiety, directly binds the residues of Leu100g-Gly123 and Thr493g-Thr516 in Tlr4. FFAs did not produce insulin resistance in adipocytes with mutated Tlr4 or galactoside-cleaved FetA. Taken together, our results suggest that FetA fulfills the requirement of an endogenous ligand for TLR4 through which lipids induce insulin resistance. This may position FetA as a new therapeutic target for managing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Natarajan K.,University of Delhi | Kundu M.,Bose Institute of India | Sharma P.,Immunology Group | Basu J.,Bose Institute of India
Tuberculosis | Year: 2011

A prerequisite for successful establishment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the host is its ability to survive after internalization in alveolar macrophages that they encounter after inhalation. The innate immune response protects some individuals to the extent that they remain uninfected. In others, the innate immune system is not sufficient and an adaptive immune response is generated. This is usually protective, but not sterilizing, and individuals remain latently infected. In susceptible individuals, M. tuberculosis successfully escapes immune surveillance. The interplay between the host innate immune response and the bacterial mechanisms in play to offset this response, is of considerable importance in dictating the course of the disease. In order to gain an understanding of this interplay it is of importance to analyze how M. tuberculosis interacts with innate immune receptors and makes its entry into macrophages, how it subverts the bactericidal effects of macrophages, and dampens processes required for protective immunity, including cytokine and chemokine induction. This review will focus on some of the Indian efforts in these areas, concentrating mainly on the interaction of M. tuberculosis with macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). The role of the PE/PPE family of proteins in regulating the immune response, will not be discussed in this chapter. The genome-wide approaches of analyzing host-M. tuberculosis interactions will also be discussed elsewhere. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Chatterjee S.,Immunology Group | Kumar D.,Immunology Group
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Cellular signaling networks display complex architecture. Defining the design principle of this architecture is crucial for our understanding of various biological processes. Using a mathematical model for three-node feed-forward loops, we identify that the organization of motifs in specific manner within the network serves as an important regulator of signal processing. Further, incorporating a systemic stochastic perturbation to the model we could propose a possible design principle, for higher-order organization of motifs into larger networks in order to achieve specific biological output. The design principle was then verified in a large, complex human cancer signaling network. Further analysis permitted us to classify signaling nodes of the network into robust and vulnerable nodes as a result of higher order motif organization. We show that distribution of these nodes within the network at strategic locations then provides for the range of features displayed by the signaling network. © 2011 Chatterjee, Kumar. Source

Sethi S.,Justus Liebig University | Nanda R.,Immunology Group | Chakraborty T.,Justus Liebig University
Clinical Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2013

This review article introduces the significance of testing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in clinical samples and summarizes important features of some of the technologies. Compared to other human diseases such as cancer, studies on VOC analysis in cases of infectious diseases are limited. Here, we have described results of studies which have used some of the appropriate technologies to evaluate VOC biomarkers and biomarker profiles associated with infections. The publications reviewed include important infections of the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, and nasal cavity. The results highlight the use of VOC biomarker profiles resulting from certain infectious diseases in discriminating between infected and healthy subjects. Infection- related VOC profiles measured in exhaled breath as well as from headspaces of feces or urine samples are a source of information with respect to disease detection. The volatiles emitted in clinical matrices may on the one hand represent metabolites of the infecting pathogen or on the other hand reflect pathogen-induced host responses or, indeed, a combination of both. Because exhaled- breath samples are easy to collect and online instruments are commercially available, VOC analysis in exhaled breath appears to be a promising tool for noninvasive detection and monitoring of infectious diseases. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Shafiani S.,Seattle Biomedical Research Institute | Dinh C.,Seattle Biomedical Research Institute | Ertelt J.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Moguche A.,Seattle Biomedical Research Institute | And 11 more authors.
Immunity | Year: 2013

Thymically derived Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells have a propensity to recognize self-peptide:MHC complexes, but their ability to respond to epitope-defined foreign antigens during infectious challenge has not been demonstrated. Here we show that pulmonary infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), but not Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), induced robust lymph node expansion of a highly activated population of pathogen-specific Treg cells from the pre-existing pool of thymically derived Treg cells. These antigen-specific Treg cells peaked in numbers 3weeks after infection but subsequently underwent selective elimination driven, in part, by interleukin-12-induced intrinsic expression of the Th1-cell-promoting transcription factor T-bet. Thus, the initial Mtb-induced inflammatory response promotes pathogen-specific Treg cell proliferation, but these cells are actively culled later, probably to prevent suppression during later stages of infection. These findings have important implications for the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis and other chronic diseases in which antigen-specific Treg cells restrict immunity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.. Source

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