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Le Grazie di Ancona, Italy

Altenburg A.,Immunology Center | El-Haj N.,Immunology Center | Micheli C.,Immunology Center | Puttkammer M.,Ain Shams University | And 2 more authors.
Deutsches Arzteblatt International

Background: Chronic recurrent oral aphthous ulcers are the most common type of inflammatory efflorescence of the oral mucosa, with a prevalence of 2% to 10% in Caucasian populations. To treat them properly, physicians should know their clinical appearance and course, conditioning factors, underlying causes, and differential diagnosis.Method: This review is based on pertinent articles that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials.Results: Hard, acidic, and salty foods and toothpastes containing sodium lauryl sulfate should be avoided, along with alcohol and carbonated drinks. In Germany, the only drugs that have been approved to treat oral aphthous ulcers are corticosteroids, topical antiseptic/anti-inflammatory agents such as triclosan and diclofenac, and local anesthetics such as lidocaine. Antiseptic agents and local anesthetics should be tried first; if these are ineffective, topical cortico steroids should be used. In severe cases, local measures can be combined with systemic drugs, e.g., colchicine, pentoxifylline, or prednisolone. The efficacy of systemic treatment is debated. Other immunosuppressive agents should be given systemically only for refractory or particularly severe oral aphthous ulcers due to Adamantiades-Behçet disease. Conclusion: The treatment of chronic recurrent oral aphthous ulcers is symp - tomatic, mainly with topically applied agents. It is tailored to the severity of the problem in the individual case, i.e., the frequency of ulcers, the intensity of pain, and the responsiveness of the lesions to treatment. Effective treatment relieves pain, lessens functional impairment, and lowers the frequency and severity of recurrences. Source

Landi F.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Abbatecola A.M.,Italian National Research Center on Aging | Provinciali M.,Immunology Center | Corsonello A.,Research Hospital of Cosenza | And 5 more authors.

Frailty is a common condition in older persons and has been described as a geriatric syndrome resulting from age-related cumulative declines across multiple physiologic systems, with impaired homeostatic reserve and a reduced capacity of the organism to resist stress. Therefore, frailty is considered as a state of high vulnerability for adverse health outcomes, such as disability, falls, hospitalization, institutionalization, and mortality. Regular physical activity has been shown to protect against diverse components of the frailty syndrome in men and women of all ages and frailty is not a contra-indication to physical activity, rather it may be one of the most important reasons to prescribe physical exercise. It has been recognized that physical activity can have an impact on different components of the frailty syndrome. This review will address the role of physical activity on the most relevant components of frailty syndrome, with specific reference to: (i) sarcopenia, as a condition which frequently overlaps with frailty; (ii) functional impairment, considering the role of physical inactivity as one of the strongest predictors of physical disability in elders; (iii) cognitive performance, including evidence on how exercise and physical activity decrease the risk of early cognitive decline and poor cognition in late life; and (iv) depression by reviewing the effect of exercise on improving mood and increasing positive well-being. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Uciechowski P.,RWTH Aachen | Oellig E.M.,RWTH Aachen | Mariani E.,University of Bologna | Malavolta M.,Immunology Center | And 2 more authors.
Immunity and Ageing

Background: Advanced age results in crucial alterations of the innate and adaptive immune system leading to functional defects resulting in infection and chronic diseases. Toll-like receptors (TLR) recognize pathogenic structures and are important in the immune response to infections and vaccination. However, the role of TLR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) is poorly understood in the setting of human ageing. This study investigated the impact of the TLR1 SNPs A743G and T1805G on ageing in different age groups from two European populations.Results: The TLR1 genotypes 743AA/1805GG (TLR1neg) are associated with a TLR1 negative phenotype, impaired function and susceptibility to tuberculosis. Carriers of heterozygous 743AG/1805TG and homozygous 743GG/1805TT genotypes (TLR1pos) have a TLR1 positive phenotype. By comparing healthy young and old German donors, the old group showed a tendency to carry more TLR1neg and less homozygous TLR1pos genotypes. Anti-inflammatory Interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (Ra) was significantly elevated in supernatants of mononuclear cells from old German subjects with a TLR1pos genotype in contrast to those with the 743AA genotype. Healthy old individuals and nonagenarians from Italy displayed significantly higher frequencies of TLR1pos genotypes than the old group from Germany. The data show that tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF)α, CXCL8 and CCL2 levels were higher in old donors from Germany than in plasma levels from old Italian donors. TNFα and CCL2 levels were significantly raised in old German individuals compared to Italian nonagenarians. German and Italian donors with the TLR1neg genotype basically produced more CCL2 than older European donors with TLR1pos genotypes.Conclusion: The higher frequency of the TLR1pos genotype in elderly Italian subjects may result from different ethnic populations. Lower inflammatory mediator release of aged Italian individuals is probably due to different background in nutrition, diet, genetics and to psychological aspects. Elderly donors carrying TLR1pos genotypes basically release more anti-inflammatory IL-1Ra and less inflammatory CCL2 suggesting a decline of the pro-inflammatory status found in ageing and, therefore, this may define an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Future studies are needed to elucidate the association of a TLRpos genotype with decreased susceptibility to infections and reduced risk to develop artherosclerosis. © 2013 Uciechowski et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Kanoni S.,Harokopio University | Dedoussis G.V.,Harokopio University | Herbein G.,University of Franche Comte | Fulop T.,Universite de Sherbrooke | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

Although zinc plays an important role in health status of the elderly, their dietary habits in relation to zinc intake are not well documented. The main objective of the current study was the assessment of dietary zinc intake in European old populations and the investigation of its impact on plasma zinc and inflammatory cytokines concentrations, in relation to genetic markers. Within the ZINCAGE study, 819 healthy old Europeans (≥60 years old) were recruited. Plasma zinc, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured. Genotype data were obtained for the -174G/C polymorphism in the IL-6 gene. Dietary data were collected with a food frequency questionnaire and were used to calculate a zinc diet score. Zinc score was validated using additional dietary data (24-h recalls), in a subsample of 105 subjects. Zinc score was different among most of the European centres (P<.001), while an age-dependent decline was documented (P=4.4×10-12). Plasma zinc concentrations were significantly correlated with the zinc score (standardized β=0.144, P=8.8×10-5). The minor allele frequency for the -174G/C polymorphism was f(C) 0.31. There was a significant interaction of zinc diet score and GG (-174G/C) genotype on higher plasma IL-6 levels (β±S.E.=0.014±0.0, P=.008). The main finding of our study was the detection of gene-nutrient and biochemical-nutrient interactions in a multiethnic cohort based on a common dietary assessment tool. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Copertaro A.,Healthcare Workers Service | Bracci M.,Marche Polytechnic University | Amati M.,Marche Polytechnic University | Baldassari M.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 2 more authors.
Industrial Health

Shift-work, particularly night-work, interferes with the physiological circadian rhythm and has the potential to induce psycho-physiological disturbances. A nurse population was investigated to establish whether shift-work can induce changes in a number of immune variables. Lymphocyte immunophenotype and proliferative response, NK cytotoxicity, cytokines and cortisol were determined in 68 shift-working and 28 daytime nurses at baseline and at 12 months. None of the variables studied differed significantly between shift and daytime workers, either at baseline or at 12 months, except IL-1β and TNF-α, which were significantly higher among daytime nurses at baseline, but not at follow-up. No effect of shift-work on immune variable and cortisol levels was seen at 12 months after adjustment for baseline values and job seniority. The specific work schedule as well as job type likely influenced our results, suggestingthat rotational shift-work does not necessarily affect the immune system adversely. The immune changes reported by other studies in shift-workers should not be generalized. Source

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