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Sweet K.,Clinical Cancer Genetics Program | Sweet K.,Comprehensive Cancer Center | Sweet K.,Ohio State University | Senter L.,Clinical Cancer Genetics Program | And 8 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2010

The majority of pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 result in a truncated protein. Although most missense changes in BRCA1 are of unknown functional significance, a handful of deleterious missense mutations have been identified. The majority of these occur in splice sites or highly conserved protein domains. Previously, we developed a predictive model, VUS Predict, to classify BRCA variants of uncertain significance as neutral or deleterious. It uses evolutionary prediction algorithms together with clinical information from cancer pathology reports and BRCA genetic testing results. Because of the higher probability that missense changes occurring in conserved BRCA1 domains are of pathogenic significance, we identified all individuals in our cohort who had been tested for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations who had missense changes in the BRCA1 ring finger domain and sought to classify those changes. We applied VUS Predict to three previously uncharacterized variants and four missense changes known to be deleterious. Two variants, L22S and T37K, were predicted to be deleterious and one variant, K45Q, was predicted to be neutral by VUS Predict. The mutations C39R, C44Y, C44S, and C61G were confirmed as deleterious. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Zhang L.,Ohio State University | Xu J.S.,Ohio State University | Sanders V.M.,Immunology and Medical Genetics | Roberts C.J.,Ohio State University | Xu R.X.,Ohio State University
Journal of Biomedical Optics | Year: 2010

We synthesize multifunctional microbubbles (MBs) for targeted delivery of antivascular endothelial growth factor (antiVEGF) therapy with multimodal imaging guidance. Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) MBs encapsulating Texas Red dye are fabricated by a modified double-emulsion process. Simultaneous ultrasound and fluorescence imaging are achieved using Texas Red encapsulated MBs. The MBs are conjugated with Avastin, an antiVEGF antibody for treating neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The conjugation efficiency is characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The efficiency for targeted binding of Avastinconjugated MBs is characterized by microscopic imaging. Our work demonstrates the technical potential of using multifunctional MBs for targeted delivery of antiVEGF therapy in the treatment of exudative AMD. © 2010 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. Source

North J.A.,Stanford University | Javaid S.,Immunology and Medical Genetics | Ferdinand M.B.,Ohio State University | Chatterjee N.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | And 8 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2011

Nucleosomes, the fundamental units of chromatin structure, are regulators and barriers to transcription, replication and repair. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of the histone proteins within nucleosomes regulate these DNA processes. Histone H3(T118) is a site of phosphorylation [H3(T118ph)] and is implicated in regulation of transcription and DNA repair. We prepared H3(T118ph) by expressed protein ligation and determined its influence on nucleosome dynamics. We find H3(T118ph) reduces DNA-histone binding by 2 kcal/mol, increases nucleosome mobility by 28-fold and increases DNA accessibility near the dyad region by 6-fold. Moreover, H3(T118ph) increases the rate of hMSH2-hMSH6 nucleosome disassembly and enables nucleosome disassembly by the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler. These studies suggest that H3(T118ph) directly enhances and may reprogram chromatin remodeling reactions. © 2011 The Author(s). Source

Kiecolt-Glaser J.K.,Ohio State University | Christian L.,Ohio State University | Malarkey W.B.,Ohio State University | Emery C.F.,Ohio State University | And 2 more authors.
Psychosomatic Medicine | Year: 2010

Objective: To address the mechanisms underlying hatha yoga's potential stress-reduction benefits, we compared inflammatory and endocrine responses of novice and expert yoga practitioners before, during, and after a restorative hatha yoga session, as well as in two control conditions. Stressors before each of the three conditions provided data on the extent to which yoga speeded an individual's physiological recovery. Methods: A total of 50 healthy women (mean age, 41.32 years; range, 30-65 years), 25 novices and 25 experts, were exposed to each of the conditions (yoga, movement control, and passive-video control) during three separate visits. Results: The yoga session boosted participants' positive affect compared with the control conditions, but no overall differences in inflammatory or endocrine responses were unique to the yoga session. Importantly, even though novices and experts did not differ on key dimensions, including age, abdominal adiposity, and cardiorespiratory fitness, novices' serum interleukin (IL)-6 levels were 41% higher than those of experts across sessions, and the odds of a novice having detectable C-reactive protein (CRP) were 4.75 times as high as that of an expert. Differences in stress responses between experts and novices provided one plausible mechanism for their divergent serum IL-6 data; experts produced less lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IL-6 in response to the stressor than novices, and IL-6 promotes CRP production. Conclusion: The ability to minimize inflammatory responses to stressful encounters influences the burden that stressors place on an individual. If yoga dampens or limits stress-related changes, then regular practice could have substantial health benefits. Copyright © 2010 by the American Psychosomatic Society. Source

Paisie C.A.,Immunology and Medical Genetics | Paisie C.A.,The Center for Infectious Disease Research | Schrock M.S.,Immunology and Medical Genetics | Karras J.R.,Immunology and Medical Genetics | And 8 more authors.
Cancer Science | Year: 2016

Loss of expression of Fhit, a tumor suppressor and genome caretaker, occurs in preneoplastic lesions during development of many human cancers. Furthermore, Fhit-deficient mouse models are exquisitely susceptible to carcinogen induction of cancers of the lung and forestomach. Due to absence of Fhit genome caretaker function, cultured cells and tissues of the constitutive Fhit knockout strain develop chromosome aneuploidy and allele copy number gains and losses and we hypothesized that Fhit-deficient cells would also develop point mutations. On analysis of whole exome sequences of Fhit-deficient tissues and cultured cells, we found 300 to >1000 single-base substitutions associated with Fhit loss in the 2% of the genome included in exomes, relative to the C57Bl6 reference genome. The mutation signature is characterized by increased C>T and T>C mutations, similar to the "age at diagnosis" signature identified in human cancers. The Fhit-deficiency mutation signature also resembles a C>T and T>C mutation signature reported for human papillary kidney cancers and a similar signature recently reported for esophageal and bladder cancers, cancers that are frequently Fhit deficient. The increase in T>C mutations in -/- exomes may be due to dNTP imbalance, particularly in thymidine triphosphate, resulting from decreased expression of thymidine kinase 1 in Fhit-deficient cells. Fhit-deficient kidney cells that survived in vitro dimethylbenz(a)anthracene treatment additionally showed increased T>A mutations, a signature generated by treatment with this carcinogen, suggesting that these T>A transversions may be evidence of carcinogen-induced preneoplastic changes. © 2016 Japanese Cancer Association. Source

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