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St. John's, Canada

For dual probe HER2 FISH assay, the 2013 CAP/ASCO guideline recommendations lowered the HER2/CEP17 ratio cut off for HER2 amplification to ≥2.0 and introduced an average HER2 copy number criterion for HER2 amplification (≥6.0/cell) and HER2 equivocal categories (≥4 and <6/cell). The HER2/CEP17 equivocal category is eliminated. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of 2013 HER2 FISH testing guideline recommendations update on the assignment of HER2 status with dual probe HER2 FISH assay. Dual probe HER2 FISH assay results on breast cancers from 09/2009 to 07/2015 that underwent reflex HER2 FISH testing after equivocal HER2 (2+) immunohistochemistry (IHC) were reviewed. HER2 copy number, CEP17 signals, and HER2/CEP ratios were noted. HER2 status was assigned as HER2 negative (HER2−), HER2 equivocal (HER2e), and HER2 amplified (HER2+) by applying both 2007 and 2013 CAP/ASCO HER2 FISH guideline recommendations and results were compared. New guidelines reclassified HER2 FISH status in a significant proportion of cases (8.3 %, 69/836; p = .021). There were 22 (2.6 %) more HER2+, 17 (2.1 %) more HER2e, and 39 (4.1 %) fewer HER2− tumors. Change of HER2 status correlated significantly with ≥3 CEP17 signals (38 vs. 2 %; p < .001). The 2013 CAP/ASCO guideline recommendations for HER2 FISH testing by dual probe assay increased the HER2 amplified and HER2 equivocal tumors. Increase in HER2 equivocal tumors would potentially increase the frequency of repeat HER2 testing. Tumors with ≥3 CEP17 signals, so-called chromosome 17 polysomy, are more likely to be impacted and classified as HER2 equivocal. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Cabello-Vilchez A.M.,University of La Laguna | Cabello-Vilchez A.M.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Mena R.,Immunohistochemistry Laboratory | Zuniga J.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | And 9 more authors.
Experimental Parasitology

In March 2010, a 35year-old HIV/AIDS female patient was admitted to hospital to start treatment with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) since during a routine control a dramatic decrease in the CD4+ levels was detected. At this stage, a nasal swab from each nostril was collected from the patient to include it in the samples for the case study mentioned above. Moreover, it is important to mention that the patient was diagnosed in 2009 with invasive pneumococcal disease, acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis and pulmonary tuberculosis. The collected nasal swabs from both nostrils were positive for Vermamoeba vermiformis species which was identified using morphological and PCR/DNA sequencing approaches. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) homology and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the amoebic strain to belong to V. vermiformis species. Molecular identification of the Mycobacterium strain was carried out using a bacterial universal primer pair for the 16S rDNA gene at the genus level and the rpoB gene was amplified and sequenced as previously described to identify the Mycobacterium species (Shin et al., 2008; Sheen et al., 2013). Homology and phylogenetic analyses of the rpoB gene confirmed the species as Mycobacterium chelonae. In parallel, collected swabs were tested by PCR and were positive for the presence of V. vermiformis and M. chelonae. This work describes the identification of an emerging bacterial pathogen, M. chelonae from a Free-Living Amoebae (FLA) strain belonging to the species V. vermiformis that colonized the nasal cavities of an HIV/AIDS patient, previously diagnosed with TB. Awareness within clinicians and public health professionals should be raised, as pathogenic agents such as M. chelonae may be using FLA to propagate and survive in the environment. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Tzenov Y.R.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Andrews P.G.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Voisey K.,Immunohistochemistry Laboratory | Popadiuk P.,University of Toronto | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Research

The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiologic agent of cervical cancer. In this study, we provide evidence for the human Pygopus (hPygo)2 gene as a cellular biomarker for HPV-related disease. In a tumor microarray of cervical cancer progression, hPygo2 levels were greater in high-grade lesions and squamous cell carcinomas than in normal epithelia. Similarly, hPygo2 mRNA and protein levels were greater in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells relative to uninfected primary cells. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of HPV-E7 increased whereas E74-like factor (Elf)-1 RNAi decreased association of Retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor with the hPygo2 promoter in cervical cancer cell lines. Transfection of dominant-active Rb inhibited Elf-1-dependent activation of hPygo2, whereas Elf-1 itself increased hPygo2 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that Rb repressed hPygo2 by inhibiting Elf-1 at the Ets-binding site in the hPygo2 promoter. These results suggested that abrogation of Rb by E7 resulted in derepression of Elf-1, which in turn stimulated expression of hPygo2. Thus, initiation of hPygo2 expression by Elf-1 was required for proliferation of cervical cancer cells and its expression therefore may act as a surrogate marker for dysplasia. © 2012 AACR. Source

Formosa R.,University of Malta | Gruppetta M.,University of Malta | Falzon S.,Immunohistochemistry Laboratory | Santillo G.,Immunohistochemistry Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Endocrine Pathology

Deregulation of the Wnt pathway has been implicated in oncogenesis of numerous tissues including the pituitary gland. Immunohistochemical localization and quantification of β-catenin, Cyclin D1, c-MYC and Survivin expression in 47 pituitary adenomas (35 non-functioning, seven GH-secreting, three prolactinomas, two ACTH-secreting tumour) and six normal controls was undertaken in this study and correlation of protein expression to patient and tumour characteristics analysed. β-catenin was strictly membrane-bound with no difference observed between normal and tumour tissue. In contrast, Cyclin D1 and c-MYC localization was nuclear and significantly higher in tumour versus normal tissue (p<0.05). c-MYC expression correlated negatively with age at diagnosis (p=0.006, R=-0.395) while Cyclin D1 expression correlated positively with age (p=0.036, R=0.306) and was higher in males than in females (p=0.036). c-MYC expression was significantly lower in patients with functional tumours requiring octreotide treatment and in patients with non-functioning tumours suffering from hypopituitarism. Survivin expression was extremely low in tumours and absent in normal controls. Involvement of the canonical Wnt pathway appears to be minimal, given the segregation of β-catenin to the membrane. Our data suggest that c-MYC may have an important role in early pituitary tumorigenesis while Cyclin D1 is likely to promote tumour growth at a later stage. We also report a novel gender difference in Cyclin D1 expression, the biological significance of which merits further analysis. The reported reduction of c-MYC in functional tumours subsequently treated with octreotide further supports a role of c-MYC in early tumorigenesis and not in recurrence. The decrease in c-MYC in patients with hypopituitarism provides the first in vivo evidence for hormonal regulation of c-MYC expression. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source

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