Immunohematology and Transfusion Center

Bologna, Italy

Immunohematology and Transfusion Center

Bologna, Italy
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Lonetti A.,University of Bologna | Antunes I.L.,University of Lisbon | Chiarini F.,National Research Council Italy | Chiarini F.,Muscoloskeletal Cell Biology Laboratory | And 14 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2014

Constitutively active phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is a common feature of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), where it upregulates cell proliferation, survival and drug resistance. These observations lend compelling weight to the application of PI3K inhibitors in the therapy of T-ALL. Here, we have analyzed the therapeutic potential of the pan-PI3K inhibitor NVP-BKM120 (BKM120), an orally bioavailable 2,6-dimorpholino pyrimidine derivative, which has entered clinical trials for solid tumors, on both T-ALL cell lines and patient samples. BKM120 treatment resulted in G 2 /M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, being cytotoxic to a panel of T-ALL cell lines and patient T lymphoblasts, and promoting a dose- and time-dependent dephosphorylation of Akt and S6RP. BKM120 maintained its pro-apoptotic activity against Jurkat cells even when cocultured with MS-5 stromal cells, which mimic the bone marrow microenvironment. Remarkably, BKM120 synergized with chemotherapeutic agents currently used for treating T-ALL patients. Moreover, in vivo administration of BKM120 to a subcutaneous xenotransplant model of human T-ALL significantly delayed tumor growth, thus prolonging survival time. Taken together, our findings indicate that BKM120, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs, may be an efficient treatment for T-ALLs that have aberrant upregulation of the PI3K signaling pathway. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Grimaldi C.,University of Bologna | Chiarini F.,University of Bologna | Tabellini G.,University of Brescia | Ricci F.,Immunohematology and Transfusion Center | And 14 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2012

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) serine/threonine kinase is the catalytic subunit of two multi-protein complexes, referred to as mTORC1 and mTORC2. Signaling downstream of mTORC1 has a critical role in leukemic cell biology by controlling mRNA translation of genes involved in both cell survival and proliferation. mTORC1 activity can be downmodulated by upregulating the liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase (LKB1/AMPK) pathway. Here, we have explored the therapeutic potential of the anti-diabetic drug, metformin (an LKB1/AMPK activator), against both T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell lines and primary samples from T-ALL patients displaying mTORC1 activation. Metformin affected T-ALL cell viability by inducing autophagy and apoptosis. However, it was much less toxic against proliferating CD4 + T-lymphocytes from healthy donors. Western blot analysis demonstrated dephosphorylation of mTORC1 downstream targets. Unlike rapamycin, we found a marked inhibition of mRNA translation in T-ALL cells treated with metformin. Remarkably, metformin targeted the side population of T-ALL cell lines as well as a putative leukemia-initiating cell subpopulation (CD34 +/CD7 -/CD4 -) in patient samples. In conclusion, metformin displayed a remarkable anti-leukemic activity, which emphasizes future development of LKB1/AMPK activators as clinical candidates for therapy in T-ALL. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Beneventi F.,University of Pavia | Simonetta M.,University of Pavia | Locatelli E.,University of Pavia | Cavagnoli C.,University of Pavia | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology | Year: 2014

Problem: To target gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by means of temporal variation in pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and soluble human leukocyte antigen-G (sHLA-G). Method of study: Retrospective analysis of PAPP-A and sHLA-G blood levels in historical samples of 112 GDM and 112 controls, drawn at first trimester, and prospective study in 18 GDM and 105 controls collected in triplicate along the pregnancy. Six hundred and sixty-five samples were analyzed. Results: Gestational diabetes mellitus had significantly lower first-trimester PAPP-A concentrations than controls (2343 ± 1519 versus 2996 ± 1955 mU/mL, in retrospective brunch and 2490.57 ± 1828.52 versus 3240.84 ± 1930.69 mU/L in prospective one, P < 0.001). First-trimester sHLA-G level was significantly lower in GDM than in controls (52.88 ± 59.69 versus 66.81 ± 50.14 ng/mL, P < 0.001) and increased during gestation in diabetic women showing an opposite trend with respect to the controls. Conclusion: PAPP-A and sHLA-G are independent markers of GDM. Quantitative variations during pregnancy help to early unravel the onset of GDM. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

PubMed | Clinical Epidemiology and Biometric Unit, IRCCS Foundation Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia and Immunohematology and Transfusion Center
Type: | Journal: Journal of reproductive immunology | Year: 2015

Autoimmune rheumatic diseases in pregnancies are associated with increased adverse obstetric outcomes. We compared maternal soluble human leucocyte antigen-G (sHLA-G) blood levels in subjects with a rheumatic disease preexisting pregnancy and unaffected controls. Third-trimester blood maternal sHLA-G concentrations were significantly higher in subjects with rheumatic diseases than in controls (mean 93.1ng/ml [SD 42.1] vs 58.1ng/ml [SD 96.3], p=0.003). Cord blood sHLA-G concentrations were significantly higher in rheumatic disease than in those born to control mothers (median 41.2ng/ml [IQR: 3.3-44.0] vs 17.9ng/ml [IQR: 17.2-88.1], p=0.007). A strict positive correlation (r=0.88, p<0.001) was found between the maternal and fetal titers of ANA autoantibodies as well as between maternal and fetal sHLAG circulating levels (r=0.58 and r=0.67, respectively, for controls and cases, p<0.001). Maternal s-HLA-G blood concentrations were significantly higher in subjects with rheumatic disease DEL/DEL homozygous for a polymorphism of the 3 untranslated regulatory region of HLA-G (HLA-G 14bp) than in the corresponding healthy controls (mean values 141.5ng/ml [SD: 166] vs 54.2ng/ml [SD: 35], p=0.009). Increasing maternal and cord blood levels of s-HLA-G concentrations among pregnant subjects with rheumatic diseases compared with controls suggest that autoimmune diseases prompt a maternal and fetal immune response that favors pregnancy immune tolerance.

Martelli A.M.,University of Bologna | Lonetti A.,University of Bologna | Buontempo F.,University of Bologna | Ricci F.,Immunohematology and Transfusion Center | And 8 more authors.
Advances in Biological Regulation | Year: 2014

Leukemia initiating cells (LICs) represent a reservoir that is believed to drive relapse and resistance to chemotherapy in blood malignant disorders. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive neoplastic disorder of immature hematopoietic precursors committed to the T-cell lineage. T-ALL comprises about 15% of pediatric and 25% of adult ALL cases and is prone to early relapse. Although the prognosis of T-ALL has improved especially in children due to the use of new intensified treatment protocols, the outcome of relapsed T-ALL cases is still poor. Putative LICs have been identified also in T-ALL. LICs are mostly quiescent and for this reason highly resistant to chemotherapy. Therefore, they evade treatment and give rise to disease relapse. At present great interest surrounds the development of targeted therapies against signaling networks aberrantly activated in LICs and important for their survival and drug-resistance. Both the Notch1 pathway and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) network are involved in T-ALL LIC survival and drug-resistance and could be targeted by small molecules. Thus, Notch1 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors are currently being developed for clinical use either as single agents or in combination with conventional chemotherapy for T-ALL patient treatment. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge of the relevance of Notch1 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in T-ALL LICs and we examine the rationale for targeting these key signal transduction networks by means of selective pharmacological inhibitors. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Neri L.M.,University of Ferrara | Cani A.,University of Ferrara | Martelli A.M.,University of Bologna | Martelli A.M.,National Research Council Italy | And 8 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2014

B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-pre ALL) is a malignant disorder characterized by the abnormal proliferation of B-cell progenitors. The prognosis of B-pre ALL has improved in pediatric patients, but the outcome is much less successful in adults. Constitutive activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) network is a feature of B-pre ALL, where it strongly influences cell growth and survival. RAD001, a selective mTORC1 inhibitor, has been shown to be cytotoxic against many types of cancer including hematological malignancies. To investigate whether mTORC1 could represent a target in the therapy of B-pre ALL, we treated cell lines and adult patient primary cells with RAD001. We documented that RAD001 decreased cell viability, induced cell cycle arrest in G 0/G 1 phase and caused apoptosis in B-pre ALL cell lines. Autophagy was also induced, which was important for the RAD001 cytotoxic effect, as downregulation of Beclin-1 reduced drug cytotoxicity. RAD001 strongly synergized with the novel allosteric Akt inhibitor MK-2206 in both cell lines and patient samples. Similar results were obtained with the combination CCI-779 plus GSK 690693. These findings point out that mTORC1 inhibitors, either as a single agent or in combination with Akt inhibitors, could represent a potential therapeutic innovative strategy in B-pre ALL. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

PubMed | Cardiology Unit, University of Milan, Immunohematology and Transfusion Center and IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genes and immunity | Year: 2015

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a pediatric acute multisystemic vasculitis complicated by development of coronary artery lesions. The breakthrough theory on KD etiopathogenesis points to pathogens/environmental factors triggered by northeastern wind coming from China. Natural Killer cells and T lymphocytes express the inhibitory/activating Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) to elicit an immune response against pathogens by binding to human leukocyte antigens (HLA) class I epitopes. We first report on the role of KIR/HLA genetic epistasis in a sample of 100 Italian KD children. We genotyped KIR, HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C polymorphisms, and compared KD data with those from 270 Italian healthy donors. The HLA-A*11 ligand for KIR2DS2/2DS4/3DL2 was a KD susceptibility marker by itself (odds ratio (OR)=3.85, confidence interval (CI)=1.55-9.53, P=0.004). Although no epistasis between HLA-A*11 and KIR2DS2/S4 emerged, HLA-A*11 also engages KIR3DL2, a framework gene encoding for a pathogen sensor of CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN), and KD blood mononuclear cells are actually prone to pathogen CpG-ODN activation in the acute phase. Moreover, carriers of KIR2DS2/HLA-C1 and KIR2DL2/HLA-C1 were more frequent among KD, in keeping with data demonstrating the involvement of these HLA/KIR couples in autoimmune endothelial damage. The highest KD risk factor was observed among carriers of KIR2DL2 and two or more HLA ligands (OR=10.24, CI=1.87-56.28; P=0.007).

Calcaterra V.,University of Pavia | Martinetti M.,Immunohematology and Transfusion Center | Salina A.,Pediatric Clinic | Aloi C.,Pediatric Clinic | Larizza D.,University of Pavia
Acta Diabetologica | Year: 2012

Even though autoantibodies to pancreatic islet cells are normally found in type 1 diabetes and insulin-resistance due to overweight is more reminiscent of type 2 diabetes, some studies have described β-cell antibodies also in maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and in type 2 diabetes. A 7-year-old girl was referred to our Unit for incidental hyperglycemia and family history of MODY2 and type 2 diabetes. Genetic evaluation confirmed mutation L134P in exon 4 of the glucokinase gene and a high HLA-risk of type 1 diabetes. During follow-up, she developed type 1 diabetes and overweight-induced metabolic syndrome. The coexistence of MODY, type 1 diabetes and overweight-induced metabolic syndrome confirms that diabetes subtype probably represents a continuum of immune and metabolic dysfunction modified by genetic factors. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Franchini M.,Immunohematology and Transfusion Center | Lippi G.,Clinical Chemistry Laboratory
Thrombosis Research | Year: 2010

Several inherited prothrombotic risk factors have been identified so far. Among them, the factor V (FV) Leiden mutation causes a reduced ability of activated protein C to inactivate activated FV and is the most frequent genetic predisposing factor for venous thromboembolism. However, the high prevalence of FV Leiden (up to 15%) in the Caucasian population suggests that this mutation might confer an evolutionary survival advantage. Indeed, there is mounting evidence about the role of FV Leiden in modulating the clinical phenotype of some physiological and pathological conditions, including hemophilia. The existing literature on the interaction between FV Leiden and hemophilia-related factor VIII or IX mutations is analyzed in this review focusing on the clinical effects and possible pathogenic mechanisms. In summary, current evidence suggests that this prothrombotic mutation may compensate for the low factor VIII or IX levels, resulting in more efficient thrombin generation and ensuing attenuation of clinical symptoms. On the other hand, the association of this prothrombotic mutation with other acquired or inherited thrombophilic factors might overcome the congenital bleeding tendency in hemophiliacs, thereby increasing the risk of thrombotic complications. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Larizza D.,University of Pavia | Calcaterra V.,University of Pavia | Klersy C.,IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation | Badulli C.,Immunohematology and Transfusion Center | And 5 more authors.
Autoimmunity | Year: 2012

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), celiac disease (CD) and autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) are autoimmune conditions relatively common in paediatric age and frequently occur in association in the same subject. This event is not by chance and requires an explanation. Here, we studied the distribution of HLA-DQ αβ heterodimers in 334 Italian children with T1DM, ATD and CD alone or in association and in 224 Italian healthy controls. In particular, 164 patients had T1DM (133 alone, 20 + ATD, 7 + CD and 4 + CD + ATD), 118 had ATD (110 alone, 8 + CD) and 52 had CD (40 alone, 11 + ATD and 1 + T1DM). 51 patients suffered from multiple autoimmune diseases. The risk for multiple autoimmune diseases was significantly associated with the increased number of HLA-DQ markers of susceptibility for both T1DM (p = 0.003) and CD (p = 0.006). The presence of one or more diabetogenic DQ molecules significantly increased the probability of developing not only T1DM (p < 0.001) but also CD (p < 0.001) and ATD (p = 0.001). Similarly, the presence of one or more celiac HLA-DQ heterodimers significantly increased the likelihood of developing not only CD (p < 0.001), but also T1DM (p < 0.001) and ATD (p < 0.001). We confirm that the sharing of the immunogenetic background is responsible for the development of multiple autoimmune diseases although with a different risk according to the number and type of susceptible HLA-DQ heterodimers as reported in the algorithm proposed here. It is likely that combinations of DQA1 and DQB1 alleles are the real culprits of the progression towards multiple autoimmune diseases and HLA-DQ genomic typing will improve the capability to predict associated autoimmune diseases in infancy. © Informa UK, Ltd.

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