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Bontadini A.,Immunogenetics Unit
Methods | Year: 2012

The HLA loci are a part of the genetic region known as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In the last twenty years there has been an exponential growth in the application of DNA technology to the field of histocompatibility and immunogenetics. Histocompatibility between the patient and donor is a prerequisite for the success of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In haematopoietic stem cell transplantation allele-level typing needs to evaluate compatibility for the HLA-A,B,C Class I and DRB1 and DQB1 Class II loci in the average transplant program because it is well established that mismatches at certain HLA loci between donor-recipients are closely linked to the risk of graft versus host disease.Resolution at an antigen level in solid organ transplantation is currently sufficient for HLA-A,B and DR antigens and it could be achieved by serological or molecular biology techniques.In solid organ transplantation the definition of antibodies in the recipient to HLA antigens is more important and it was performed primarily by serological technique and more recently by solid phase immunoassays that are more sensitive and specific. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Bonifazi F.,University of Bologna | Bandini G.,University of Bologna | Arpinati M.,University of Bologna | Tolomelli G.,University of Bologna | And 10 more authors.
Bone Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2012

Several studies have shown that chronic GVHD (cGVHD) is more frequent in patients receiving transplants from PBSC than in those receiving BM. In the setting of PBSC-unrelated transplants, the addition of anti-T-cell globulin (ATG) has shown a significant decrease in incidence/severity of cGVHD, without an increase in relapses or infections. However, no prospective data are yet available in the sibling setting. We retrospectively analyzed the effects of intensification of standard GVHD prophylaxis (CsAMTX) by the addition of low-dose ATG in 245 patients receiving a transplant from HLA-identical sibling. From 1996 to 2001, patients received PBSC as the preferred source (group 2), and then ATG was added before transplant (group 3) because of a high cGVHD rate. Patients receiving BM in the same time period were analyzed as a control group (group 1). The incidence of grade IIIIV acute GVHD and cGVHD was not significantly different in the three groups, but extensive cGVHD was highest in group 2 (38%) compared with group 3 (21%) or group 1 (28%; P0.03). OS, TRM and time to relapse/progression were similar in the three groups. Our analysis shows that adding ATG to PBSC sibling allogeneic transplants can lower cGVHD, without an increase of relapse. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Fasano M.E.,Transplant Immunology Service | Rendine S.,Transplant Immunology Service | Rendine S.,University of Turin | Pasi A.,Foundation Medicine | And 24 more authors.
Tissue Antigens | Year: 2014

The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) interaction represents an example of genetic epistasis, where the concomitant presence of specific genes or alleles encoding receptor-ligand units is necessary for the activity of natural killer (NK) cells. Although KIR and HLA genes segregate independently, they co-evolved under environmental pressures to maintain particular KIR-HLA functional blocks for species survival. We investigated, in 270 Italian healthy individuals, the distribution of KIR and HLA polymorphisms in three climatic areas (from cold north to warm south), to verify their possible geographical stratification. We analyzed the presence of 13 KIR genes and genotyped KIR ligands belonging to HLA class I: HLA-C, HLA-B and HLA-A. We did not observe any genetic stratification for KIR genes and HLA-C ligands in Italy. By contrast, in a north-to-south direction, we found a decreasing trend for the HLA-A3 and HLA-A11 ligands (P=0.012) and an increasing trend for the HLA-B ligands carrying the Bw4 epitope (P=0.0003) and the Bw4 Ile80 epitope (P=0.0005). The HLA-A and HLA-B KIR ligands were in negative linkage disequilibrium (correlation coefficient -0.1211), possibly as a consequence of their similar function in inhibiting NK cells. The distribution of the KIR-HLA functional blocks was different along Italy, as we observed a north-to-south ascending trend for KIR3DL1, when coupled with HLA-B Bw4 ligands (P=0.0067) and with HLA-B Bw4 Ile80 (P=0.0027), and a descending trend for KIR3DL2 when coupled with HLA-A3 and HLA-A11 ligands (P=0.0044). Overall, people from South Italy preferentially use the KIR3DL1-HLA-B Bw4 functional unit, while those from the North Italy equally use both the KIR3DL2-HLA-A3/A11 and the KIR3DL1-HLA-B Bw4 functional units to fight infections. Thus, only KIR3DL receptors, which exert the unique role of microbial sensors through the specific D0 domain, and their cognate HLA-A and HLA-B ligands are selectively pressured in Italy according to geographical north-to-south distribution. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Audrito V.,University of Turin | Audrito V.,Immunogenetics Unit | Serra S.,University of Turin | Serra S.,Immunogenetics Unit | And 21 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2015

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis. In the extracellular compartment, it exhibits cytokine-/adipokinelike properties, suggesting that it stands at the crossroad between metabolism and inflammation. Here we show that both intracellular and extracellular NAMPT levels are increased in cells and plasma of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. The extracellular form (eNAMPT) is produced by CLL lymphocytes upon B-cell receptor, Toll-like receptor, and nuclear factor kB (NF-κB) signaling pathway activation. eNAMPT is important for differentiation of resting monocytes, polarizing them toward tumor-supporting M2 macrophages. These cells express high levels of CD163, CD206, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and secrete immunosuppressive (interleukin [IL] 10, CC chemokine ligand 18) and tumor-promoting (IL-6, IL-8) cytokines. NAMPT-primed M2 macrophages activate extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and NF-kB signaling; promote leukemic cell survival; and reduce T-cell responses. These effects are independent of the enzymaticactivity of NAMPT, asinferred from the use of anenzymatically inactive mutant. Overall, these results reveal that eNAMPT is a critical element in the induction of an immunosuppressive and tumor-promoting microenvironment of CLL. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

Pozzo F.,Clinical and Experimental Onco Hematology Unit | Bittolo T.,Clinical and Experimental Onco Hematology Unit | Arruga F.,Immunogenetics Unit | Bulian P.,Clinical and Experimental Onco Hematology Unit | And 19 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2016

In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), NOTCH1 mutations have been associated with clinical resistance to the anti-CD20 rituximab, although the mechanisms behind this peculiar behavior remain to be clarified. In a wide CLL series (n=692), we demonstrated that CLL cells from NOTCH1-mutated cases (87/692) were characterized by lower CD20 expression and lower relative lysis induced by anti-CD20 exposure in vitro. Consistently, CD20 expression by CLL cells was upregulated in vitro by γ-secretase inhibitors or NOTCH1-specific small interfering RNA and the stable transfection of a mutated (c.7541-7542delCT) NOTCH1 intracellular domain (NICD-mut) into CLL-like cells resulted in a strong downregulation of both CD20 protein and transcript. By using these NICD-mut transfectants, we investigated protein interactions of RBPJ, a transcription factor acting either as activator or repressor of NOTCH1 pathway when respectively bound to NICD or histone deacetylases (HDACs). Compared with controls, NICD-mut transfectants had RBPJ preferentially complexed to NICD and showed higher levels of HDACs interacting with the promoter of the CD20 gene. Finally, treatment with the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid upregulated CD20 in both NICD-mut transfectants and primary CLL cells. In conclusion, NOTCH1 mutations are associated with low CD20 levels in CLL and are responsible for a dysregulation of HDAC-mediated epigenetic repression of CD20 expression. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

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