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Firenze, Italy

Maggi E.,University of Florence | Vultaggio A.,Immunoallergology Unit | Matucci A.,Immunoallergology Unit
Expert Review of Clinical Immunology | Year: 2011

This article reports recent evidence on epidemiological data concerning monoclonal antibody (mAb) infusion-related anaphylaxis, as well as recent data on the correlation between mAb immunogenicity and safety profiles. Pathogenic mechanisms of mAb-related adverse reactions including hypersensitivity, IgE- and non-IgE-mediated events and cytokine release syndrome are also highlighted. Finally, the role of serum anti-mAb antibodies as markers to monitor the safety of such therapeutical compounds are extensively evaluated. The anaphylaxis occurring during therapy with the anti-TNF-α mAb infliximab, largely used in immune-mediated diseases, has been taken as a paradig. © 2011 Expert Reviews Ltd.

Cantini F.,Hospital of Prato | Nannini C.,Hospital of Prato | Niccoli L.,Hospital of Prato | Iannone F.,University of Bari | And 7 more authors.
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2015

Since the introduction of biologics for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and psoriasis (Pso) an increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation in patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been recorded for anti-TNF agents, while a low or absent risk is associated with the non-anti-TNF targeted biologics. To reduce this risk several recommendation sets have been published over time, but in most of them the host-related risk, and the predisposing role to TB reactivation exerted by corticosteroids and by the traditional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs has not been adequately addressed. Moreover, the management of the underlying disease, and the timing of biologic restarting in patients with TB occurrence have been rarely indicated. A multidisciplinary expert panel, the Italian multidisciplinary task force for screening of tuberculosis before and during biologic therapy (SAFEBIO), was constituted, and through a review of the literature, an evidence-based guidance for LTBI detection, identification of the individualized level of risk of TB reactivation, and practical management of patients with TB occurrence was formulated. The literature review confirmed a higher TB risk associated with monoclonal anti-TNF agents, a low risk for soluble receptor etanercept, and a low or absent risk for non-anti-TNF targeted biologics. Considering the TB reactivation risk associated with host demographic and clinical features, and previous or current non-biologic therapies, a low, intermediate, or high TB reactivation risk in the single patient was identified, thus driving the safest biologic choice. Moreover, based on the underlying disease activity measurement and the different TB risk associated with non-biologic and biologic therapies, practical indications for the treatment of RA, PsA, AS, and Pso in patients with TB occurrence, as well as the safest timing of biologic restarting, were provided. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Boyman O.,University of Zurich | Kaegi C.,University of Zurich | Akdis M.,University of Zurich | Akdis M.,Christine Kuhne Center for Allergy Research and Education | And 16 more authors.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2015

Biologic agents (also termed biologicals or biologics) are therapeutics that are synthesized by living organisms and directed against a specific determinant, for example, a cytokine or receptor. In inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, biologicals have revolutionized the treatment of several immune-mediated disorders. Biologicals have also been tested in allergic disorders. These include agents targeting IgE; T helper 2 (Th2)-type and Th2-promoting cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, IL-31, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP); pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-12, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-23, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF); chemokine receptor CCR4; and lymphocyte surface and adhesion molecules, including CD2, CD11a, CD20, CD25, CD52, and OX40 ligand. In this task force paper of the Interest Group on Biologicals of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, we review biologicals that are currently available or tested for the use in various allergic and urticarial pathologies, by providing an overview on their state of development, area of use, adverse events, and future research directions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Vultaggio A.,Immunoallergology Unit | Virgili G.,University of Florence | Gaeta F.,Allergy Unit | Romano A.,Allergy Unit | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Total serum IgE result from the combination of specific and non-specific pools. High specific/ total IgE ratio may reflect high level of allergen-specific IgE on mast cells. No data regarding its applications to drug allergies is available. One hundred seventy-one patients with a history of immediate reactions to β-lactams, confirmed by positive skin testing, and 122 control subjects tolerant to β-lactams, were studied. CAP System was used for the detection of serum total and specific IgE antibodies. The specific/total IgE ratio was tested for diagnostic accuracy compared with conventional criteria.We finally performed a simulation study to expand our investigation of the performance of the specific/total IgE ratio index in a scenario in which the new CAP detection threshold is lowered further. Specific/total IgE ratio values ≥0.002 were observed more frequently in reactive than in controls. Seventy-four of 80 subjects with values ≥0.002 were allergic to β-lactams, yielding a positive predictive value of 92.5%. The application of specific/total IgE ratio significantly improves the positive likelihood ratio and the overall diagnostic performance. In addition, we showed the capability of this new criterion to identify true reactive patients even among subjects with high levels of total IgE (>200 kU/L). Significant increase in both receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve and sensitivity were observed in imputed case of the simulation study. The β-lactams-specific/total IgE ratio may be an additional index compared to the common criterion of positivity to a single hapten in the allergological work-up of patients with β-lactams immediate adverse reactions. © 2015 Vultaggio et al.

Matucci A.,Immunoallergology Unit | Vultaggio A.,Immunoallergology Unit
Journal of Rheumatology | Year: 2014

In this review, recent insights into innate and adaptive cellular and humoral immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are discussed and the role of specific cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is highlighted. According to recent findings, the immune system plays a key role in avoiding mycobacteria dissemination. The importance of different cell types (macrophages, dendritic cells, interferon-g-producing T cells) as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-12, and IL-23/IL-17 have been demonstrated. Alveolar macrophages are considered the first cells infected by Mtb during respiratory infection. Mtb proliferates within alveolar macrophages and dendritic cells and induces the release of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-12. Toll-like receptors-stimulated dendritic cells link innate and adaptive immunity by promoting polarization of effector T cells. The efficient induction of Th1 immunity is decisive in defense against Mtb. In fact, host effector immune response against Mtb is related to the presence of a Th1 response. The definition of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the immune response to Mtb can be helpful in developing new preventive strategies to avoid infection relapse, particularly in patients treated with biological agents. © 2014. All rights reserved.

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