Immunization Program

CA, United States

Immunization Program

CA, United States
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WASHINGTON, DC--(Marketwired - May 04, 2017) - "As the voice of more than nearly 3,000 local health departments across the United States, the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) is disappointed that the House of Representatives today passed legislation that eliminates the funding that provides essential resources to governmental public health at the federal, state and local levels. "The 'American Health Care Act' eradicates funding for the Prevention and Public Health Fund (PPHF) in FY2019, which makes up 12% of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) funding. Among the programs at risk at the CDC are the 317 Immunization Program, Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity Grants, Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program, Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, and Diabetes Prevention, among others. "In addition, the 'American Healthcare Act' ends funding in FY2020 for the Medicaid expansion in 32 states, which has provided access to primary and emergency care to millions of Americans. The bill also caps federal Medicaid funding that will ultimately result in shifting responsibility to the states and counties -- leaving governors, state legislatures, and local governments facing tight budgets with no choice but to reduce coverage for millions of seniors, low-income families, people with disabilities, and children." About NACCHO The National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) represents the nation's nearly 3,000 local governmental health departments. These city, county, metropolitan, district, and tribal departments work every day to protect and promote health and well-being for all people in their communities. For more information about NACCHO, please visit www.naccho.org.


Pannaraj P.S.,Childrens Hospital Los Angeles | Pannaraj P.S.,University of Southern California | Wang H.-L.,Childrens Hospital Los Angeles | Rivas H.,Public Health Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background. School-located influenza vaccination (SLV) programs can efficiently immunize large numbers of school-aged children. We evaluated the impact of SLV on laboratory-confirmed influenza and absenteeism. Methods. Active surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI) was conducted on 4455 children in 4 SLV intervention and 4 control elementary schools (grades K-6) matched for sociodemographic characteristics during the 2010-2011 influenza season in Los Angeles County, California. Combined nose/throat swabs were collected from febrile children with ILI at presentation to the school nurse or during absenteeism. Results. In SLV schools, 26.9%-46.6% of enrolled students received at least 1 dose of either inactivated or live attenuated influenza vaccine compared with 0.8%-4.3% in control schools. Polymerase chain reaction for respiratory viruses (PCR) was performed on 1021 specimens obtained from 898 children. Specimens were positive for influenza in 217 (21.3%), including 2009 H1N1 (30.9%), H3 (9.2%), and B (59.9%). Children attending SLV schools, regardless of vaccination status, were 30.8% (95% confidence interval, 10.1%-46.8%) less likely to acquire influenza compared with children at control schools. Unvaccinated children were indirectly protected in the school with nearly 50% vaccination coverage compared with control schools (influenza rate, 27.1 vs 60.0 per 1000 children; P = .023). Unvaccinated children missed more school days than vaccinated children (4.3 vs 2.8 days per 100 school days; P < .001). Conclusions. Vaccination of at least a quarter of the school population resulted in decreased influenza rates and improved school attendance. Herd immunity for unvaccinated children may occur in schools with vaccination coverage approaching 50%. © The Author 2014.


Bishai D.,Family and Reproductive Health | Nair D.,Family and Reproductive Health | Nabyonga-Orem J.,World Health Organization | Fiona-Makmot B.,Immunization Program | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Supplemental Immunization Activities (SIAs) have become an important adjunct to measles control efforts in countries that endeavor to achieve higher levels of population immunity than can be achieved in a growing routine immunization system. Because SIAs are often supported with funds that have alternative uses, decision makers need to know how cost-effective they are compared with other options. This study integrated a dynamic stochastic model of measles transmission in Uganda (2010-2050) with a cost model to compare a strategy of maintaining Uganda's current (2008) levels of the first dose of routine measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) coverage at 68% with SIAs with a strategy using the same levels of MCV1 coverage without SIAs. The stochastic model was fitted with parameters drawn from district-level measles case reports from Uganda, and the cost model was fitted to administrative data from the Ugandan Expanded Program on Immunization and from the literature. A discount rate of 0.03, time horizon of 2010-2050, and a societal perspective on costs were assumed. Costs expressed in US dollars (2010) included vaccination costs, disease treatment costs including lost productivity of mothers, as well as costs of outbreaks and surveillance. The model estimated that adding on triennial SIAs that covered 95% of children aged 12-59 months to a system that achieved routine coverage rates of 68% would have an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $1.50 ($US 2010) per disability-adjusted life year averted. The ICER was somewhat higher if the discount rate was set at either 0 or 0.06. The addition of SIAs was found to make outbreaks less frequent and lower in magnitude. The benefit was reduced if routine coverage rates were higher. This cost-effectiveness ratio compares favorably to that of other commonly accepted public health interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.


Robison S.G.,Immunization Program | Kurosky S.K.,Immunization Program | Young C.M.,Immunization Program | Gallia C.A.,00 Summer St. NE | Arbor S.A.,00 Summer St. NE
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

A challenge facing immunization registries is developing measures of childhood immunization coverage that contain more information for setting policy than present vaccine series up-to-date (UTD) rates. This study combined milestone analysis with provider encounter data to determine when children either do not receive indicated immunizations during medical encounters or fail to visit providers. Milestone analysis measures immunization status at key times between birth and age 2, when recommended immunizations first become late. The immunization status of a large population of children in the Oregon ALERT immunization registry and in the Oregon Health Plan was tracked across milestone ages. Findings indicate that the majority of children went back and forth with regard to having complete age-appropriate immunizations over time. We also found that immunization UTD rates when used alone are biased towards relating non-UTD status to a lack of visits to providers, instead of to provider visits on which recommended immunizations are not given. Copyright © 2010 Steve G. Robison et al.


PubMed | Immunization Program
Type: | Journal: Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology | Year: 2010

A challenge facing immunization registries is developing measures of childhood immunization coverage that contain more information for setting policy than present vaccine series up-to-date (UTD) rates. This study combined milestone analysis with provider encounter data to determine when children either do not receive indicated immunizations during medical encounters or fail to visit providers. Milestone analysis measures immunization status at key times between birth and age 2, when recommended immunizations first become late. The immunization status of a large population of children in the Oregon ALERT immunization registry and in the Oregon Health Plan was tracked across milestone ages. Findings indicate that the majority of children went back and forth with regard to having complete age-appropriate immunizations over time. We also found that immunization UTD rates when used alone are biased towards relating non-UTD status to a lack of visits to providers, instead of to provider visits on which recommended immunizations are not given.


PubMed | Immunization Program
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Giving recommended immunizations during sick visits for minor and acute illness such as acute otitis media has long been an American Academy of Pediatrics/Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice recommendation. An addition to the American Academy of Pediatrics policy in 2010 advised considering whether giving immunizations at the sick visit would discourage making up missed well-baby visits. This study quantifies the potential tradeoff between sick-visit immunizations and well-baby visits.This study was a retrospective cohort analysis with a case-control component of sick visits for acute otitis media that supplanted normal well-baby visits at age 2, 4, or 6 months. Infants were stratified for sick-visit immunization, no sick-visit immunization but quick makeup well-baby visits, or no sick-visit immunizations or quick makeup visits. Immunization rates and well-baby visit rates were assessed through 24 months of age.For 1060 study cases, no significant difference was detected in immunization rates or well-baby visits through 24 months of age between those with or without sick-visit immunizations. Thirty-nine percent of infants without a sick-visit shot failed to return for a quick makeup well-baby visit; this delayed group was significantly less likely to be up-to-date for immunizations (relative risk: 0.66) and had fewer well-baby visits (mean: 3.8) from 2 through 24 months of age compared with those with sick-visit shots (mean: 4.7).The substantial risk that infants will not return for a timely makeup well-baby visit after a sick visit should be included in any consideration of whether to delay immunizations.

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