Charleroi, Belgium
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Levy J.,Saint Pierre University Hospital | Licini L.,ImmuneHealth | Haelterman E.,ImmuneHealth | Moris P.,GSK Vaccines | And 4 more authors.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2015

We assessed the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a staphylococcal vaccine combining capsular polysaccharides types 5 and 8 (CPS5/8), conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT), with mutated detoxified a-toxin (AT) and clumping factor A (ClfA). In this phase I, randomized, placebo-controlled, observer-blind trial (NCT01160172), 88 healthy 18- to 40-year-olds received CPS5-TT/CPS8-TT/AT/ClfA vaccine (5/5/10/10 mg or 10/10/30/30 mg dose, each with or without AS03B adjuvant) or saline, at months 0, 1, 6. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were recorded for 7 and 30 d post-vaccination, respectively; potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs) and serious AEs (SAEs) were recorded throughout the study. Humoral and antigen-specific CD4C/CD8C T-cell immunity were assessed from Day (D) 0 to D540 post-vaccination. The most frequently reported solicited local and general AEs were pain (78.6%-100% of subjects), fatigue (36.4%-93.3% of subjects post-dose 1-2) and headache (20%-44.4% of subjects post-dose 3). Overall, 4 SAEs and 2 potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs) (none fatal or vaccine-related) were reported. For each antigen, pre-vaccination seropositivity rates were high (85.7%-100%) and geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) in vaccine recipients sharply increased from D0 to D14, then plateaued to study end. Exploratory group comparisons suggested higher GMCs with higher dosage, without AS03B effect. Vaccine-induced antibodies were functional (CPS5 opsonophagocytic assays, and AT/ClfA inhibition assays). AT- And ClfA-specific CD4C T-cells with Th0/Th1 cytokine profile were induced at low levels (median <0.05%) by each formulation (intracellular cytokine staining). In conclusion, no safety concerns were identified and each vaccine formulation induced robust humoral immune responses after the first vaccine dose. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Dauby N.,Free University of Colombia | Kummert C.,ImmuneHealth | Lecomte S.,Free University of Colombia | Donner C.,Hopital Erasme | Marchant A.,Free University of Colombia
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Although neutralizing antibodies play a central role in the control of cytomegalovirus (CMV) dissemination, little is known about the response of B lymphocytes to primary human CMV infection. Methods: The proportion, phenotype, specificity, and functionality of B-cell subsets were studied in a cohort of pregnant women with primary CMV infection. CMV-seronegative pregnant women, as well as CMV-seronegative and CMV-seropositive healthy adults, were included as controls. Results: Primary CMV infection was associated with a sustained expansion of activated (CD27+ CD20+ CD21low) and atypical (CD27- CD20+ CD21low) memory B cells (MBCs). Both subsets expressed an effector phenotype, and their proportions were correlated with viremia. Activated MBCs expressed high levels of activation markers and included high frequencies of tumor necrosis α (TNF-α)-producing cells, whereas atypical MBCs expressed high levels of inhibitory receptors and had low TNF-α responses. Fluorescent-labeled antigen experiments indicated that activated and atypical MBCs were enriched in CMV-specific cells. Conclusions: Primary CMV infection mobilizes a large pool of memory B cells that includes activated and atypical MBCs. The functional regulation of CMV-specific MBCs may limit the production of antibodies and the control of viral dissemination. © The Author 2014.


PubMed | ImmuneHealth, Hopital Saint Pierre., Hopital Erasme, Free University of Colombia and University Pierre and Marie Curie
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of infectious diseases | Year: 2015

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during fetal life causes severe symptoms and is associated with prolonged viral excretion. Previous studies reported low CD4(+) T-cell responses to CMV infection in early life, contrasting with large responses of effector CD8(+) T cells. The mechanisms underlying the defective CD4(+) T-cell responses and the possible dissociation with CD8(+) T-cell responses have not been clarified.The magnitude and the quality of the fetal CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell responses to CMV infection were compared to those of adults with primary or chronic infection.In utero CMV infection induced oligoclonal expansions of fetal CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes expressing a T-helper type 1 or Tc1 effector phenotype similar to that of adult CMV-specific cells. However, the effector cytokine responses and the polyfunctionality of newborn CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were markedly lower than those of adult cells. This reduced functionality was associated with a higher expression of the programmed death 1 inhibitory receptor, and blockade of this receptor increased newborn T-cell responses.Functional exhaustion limits effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocyte responses to CMV during fetal life.


PubMed | University Hospital of Tuebingen, Ghent University, University Hospital St Luc, Free University of Colombia and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.) | Year: 2016

Immunogenicity and safety of different adjuvants combined with a model antigen (HBsAg) were compared. Healthy HBV-nave adults were randomized to receive HBs adjuvanted with alum or Adjuvant Systems AS01B, AS01E, AS03A or AS04 at Days 0 and 30. Different frequencies of HBs-specific CD4+ T cells 14days post dose 2 but similar polyfunctionality profiles were induced by the different adjuvants with frequencies significantly higher in the AS01B and AS01E groups than in the other groups. Antibody concentrations 30days post-dose 2 were significantly higher in AS01B, AS01E and AS03A than in other groups. Limited correlations were observed between HBs-specific CD4+ T cell and antibody responses. Injection site pain was the most common solicited local symptom and was more frequent in AS groups than in alum group. Different adjuvants formulated with the same antigen induced different adaptive immune responses and reactogenicity patterns in healthy nave adults. The results summary for this study (GSK study number 112115 - NCT# NCT00805389) is available on the GSK Clinical Study Register and can be accessed at www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com.


PubMed | Erasme Hospital, ImmuneHealth, Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg and Free University of Colombia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of infectious diseases | Year: 2016

Following primary human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, the production of antibodies against envelope glycoprotein B (gB) is delayed, compared with production of antibodies against tegument proteins, and this likely reduces the control of HCMV dissemination.The frequency and the phenotype of gB-specific and tegument protein-specific B cells were studied in a cohort of pregnant women with primary HCMV infection. Healthy adults who had chronic HCMV infection or were recently immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) were included as controls.Primary HCMV infection was associated with high and similar frequencies of gB-specific and tegument protein-specific B cells following primary HCMV infection. During primary infection, tegument protein-specific B cells expressed an activated (CD21(low)) memory B-cell (MBC) phenotype. Activated MBCs were also induced by TT booster immunization, indicating that the expansion of this subset is part of the physiological B-cell response to protein antigens. In contrast, gB-specific B cells had a predominant classical (CD21(+)) MBC phenotype during both primary and chronic infections.The delayed production of gB-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) during primary HCMV infection is associated with a limited induction of MBCs with effector potential. This novel mechanism by which HCMV may interfere with the production of neutralizing antibodies could represent a target for therapeutic immunization.


Lauwerys B.R.,Catholic University of Leuven | Hachulla E.,Hopital Claude Huriez | Spertini F.,CHU Vaudois | Lazaro E.,Bordeaux University Hospital Center | And 8 more authors.
Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2013

Objective We developed interferon-α-kinoid (IFN-K), a drug composed of inactivated IFNα coupled to a carrier protein, keyhole limpet hemocyanin. In human IFNα-transgenic mice, IFN-K induces polyclonal antibodies that neutralize all 13 subtypes of human IFNα. We also previously demonstrated that IFN-K slows disease progression in a mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study was undertaken to examine the safety, immunogenicity, and biologic effects of active immunization with IFN-K in patients with SLE. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase I/II dose-escalation study comparing 3 or 4 doses of 30 μg, 60 μg, 120 μg, or 240 μg of IFN-K or placebo in 28 women with mild to moderate SLE. Results IFN-K was well tolerated. Two SLE flares were reported as serious adverse events, one in the placebo group and the other in a patient who concomitantly stopped corticosteroids 2 days after the first IFN-K dose, due to mild fever not related to infection. Transcriptome analysis was used to separate patients at baseline into IFN signature-positive and -negative groups, based on the spontaneous expression of IFN-induced genes. IFN-K induced anti-IFNα antibodies in all immunized patients. Notably, significantly higher anti-IFNα titers were found in signature-positive patients than in signature-negative patients. In IFN signature-positive patients, IFN-K significantly reduced the expression of IFN-induced genes. The decrease in IFN score correlated with the anti-IFNα antibody titer. Serum complement C3 levels were significantly increased in patients with high anti-IFNα antibody titers. Conclusion These results show that IFN-K is well tolerated, immunogenic, and significantly improves disease biomarkers in SLE patients, indicating that further studies of its clinical efficacy are warranted. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.


Zedda L.,Novartis | Forleo-Neto E.,Novartis | Vertruyen A.,Sint Vincentius Ziekenhuis | Raes M.,Kinderartsenassociatie | And 9 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2015

Introduction: Annual seasonal influenza epidemics are particularly dangerous for the very young, the elderly and chronically ill individuals, in whom infection can cause severe morbidity, hospitalization and death. Existing, nonadjuvanted influenza vaccines exhibit a suboptimal immunogenicity and efficacy in immunologically naive subjects such as young children. Methods: This phase II, randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the antibody and cell-mediated responses to a trivalent influenza vaccine administered without adjuvant (TIV) or adjuvanted with MF59 (ATIV) in previously nonvaccinated children less than 3 years of age. Results: The MF59-adjuvanted vaccine was well tolerated, and induced higher titers of hemagglutination inhibition antibodies able to recognize strains different from the one used in the vaccine (heterovariant) than TIV. The presence of the adjuvant MF59 induced a larger expansion of vaccinespecific CD4+ T cells. Interestingly, the adjuvant MF59 did not modify the cytokine profile of the elicited T cells, characterized by the production of IL-2 and TNF-α, and did not bias the response toward either Th1 or Th2. The advantage of ATIV over TIV was more pronounced for the virus strains that had not circulated in the years that preceded this study and for the heterovariant strains. Conclusion: These data highlight the relevant role played by the oil-inwater adjuvant MF59 in enhancing the immunogenicity of inactivated influenza vaccines in immunologically naive individuals. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Compte N.,Free University of Colombia | Zouaoui Boudjeltia K.,Free University of Colombia | Vanhaeverbeek M.,Free University of Colombia | De Breucker S.,Service de geriatrie | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Aging is associated with progressive alterations of immune functions, leading to higher susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections and reduced vaccine responses. Data concerning cytokine production in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands are highly variable in old people, reflecting the heterogeneity of the geriatric population. The aim of our study was to define the relative contribution of age and clinical status on TLR-induced interleukin (IL)-12p70 and IL-23 production as these cytokines play an important role in the protection against intracellular and extracellular pathogens, respectively. For this purpose, we recruited 100 subjects (aged 23-96 years) in the general population or hospitalized for chronic diseases. We collected information on clinical status (medical history, ongoing comorbidities, treatments and geriatric scales), biological parameters (biochemical and hematological tests, telomere length determination, cytomegalovirus serology). Whole blood samples were stimulated with a combination of TLR4 and TLR7/8 ligands. We performed univariate and stepwise backward multivariate analyses regression to define which set of clinical variables could be predictive for IL-12p70 and IL-23 production in these conditions. Our results indicated that age was not correlated with TLR-mediated IL-12p70 and IL-23 production. In contrast, poor nutritional status and frailty in subjects >75 years were associated with decreased IL-12p70 and IL-23 production. By intracytoplasmic staining, we confirmed that production of IL-12/23p40 by conventional dendritic cells (DCs) upon TLR ligation was decreased in frail patients. However, proportion of DCs and monocytes subsets, phenotypic maturation and proximal signaling events were found to be comparable in frail and healthy old subjects. These results suggest the importance of age-associated clinical parameters and not age by itself in the alteration of innate immune responses in old individuals and emphasis the importance of innate immune responses in the susceptibility of frail geriatric patients to infections. © 2013 Compté et al.


Dimova T.,Free University of Colombia | Brouwer M.,Free University of Colombia | Gosselin F.,Hopital Erasme | Tassignon J.,ImmuneHealth | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

γδ T cells are unconventional T cells recognizing antigens via their γδ T-cell receptor (TCR) in a way that is fundamentally different from conventional αβ T cells. γδ T cells usually are divided into subsets according the type of Vγ and/or Vδ chain they express in their TCR. T cells expressing the TCR containing the γ-chain variable region 9 and the δ-chain variable region 2 (Vγ9Vδ2 T cells) are the predominant γδ T-cell subset in human adult peripheral blood. The current thought is that this predominance is the result of the postnatal expansion of cells expressing particular complementary-determining region 3 (CDR3) in response to encounters with microbes, especially those generating phosphoantigens derived from the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway of isoprenoid synthesis. However, here we show that, rather than requiring postnatal microbial exposure, Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are the predominant blood subset in the second-trimester fetus, whereas Vδ1(+) and Vδ3(+) γδ T cells are present only at low frequencies at this gestational time. Fetal blood Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are phosphoantigen responsive and display very limited diversity in the CDR3 of the Vγ9 chain gene, where a germline-encoded sequence accounts for >50% of all sequences, in association with a prototypic CDR3δ2. Furthermore, these fetal blood Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are functionally preprogrammed (e.g., IFN-γ and granzymes-A/K), with properties of rapidly activatable innatelike T cells. Thus, enrichment for phosphoantigen-responsive effector T cells has occurred within the fetus before postnatal microbial exposure. These various characteristics have been linked in the mouse to the action of selecting elements and would establish a much stronger parallel between human and murine γδ T cells than is usually articulated.


Ysebrant de Lendonck L.,Free University of Colombia | Eddahri F.,ImmuneHealth | Delmarcelle Y.,ImmuneHealth | Nguyen M.,Free University of Colombia | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The generation of high-affinity antibodies and the development of B cell memory are dependent on the help provided by CD4 T cells. Mouse studies indicate that STAT3 signaling in CD4 T cells promotes the acquisition of the B cell help function. However, the role of STAT3 in humans has been controversial. In this study, we show that IL-6 and other STAT3 activating cytokines (IL-21 and IL-27) induce the differentiation of CD4 T cells promoting antibody production by B cells. The acquisition of B cell stimulating properties by naive cord blood CD4 T cells required the STAT3-dependent expression of ICOS and IL-21. Gene reporter and ChIP experiments unambiguously demonstrated that upon IL-6 stimulation, STAT3 induces the transcription of the ICOS gene through direct recruitment to the proximal promoter region indicating that STAT3 acts in part through the direct activation of the ICOS gene. © 2013 Ysebrant de Lendonck et al.

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