International union of basic and clinical pharmacology. XCV. Recent advances in the understanding of the pharmacology and biological roles of relaxin family peptide receptors 1–4, the receptors for relaxin family peptides
Halls M.L.,Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences |
Bathgate R.A.D.,University of Melbourne |
Sutton S.W.,Janssen Research and Development LLC |
Dschietzig T.B.,Immundiagnostik AG |
And 2 more authors.
Pharmacological Reviews | Year: 2015
Relaxin, insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3), relaxin-3, and INSL5 are the cognate ligands for the relaxin family peptide (RXFP) receptors 1–4, respectively. RXFP1 activates pleiotropic signaling pathways including the signalosome protein complex that facilitates highsensitivity signaling; coupling to Gas, Gai, and Gao proteins; interaction with glucocorticoid receptors; and the formation of hetero-oligomers with distinctive pharmacological properties. In addition to relaxinrelated ligands, RXFP1 is activated by Clq-tumor necrosis factor-related protein 8 and by small-molecularweight agonists, such as ML290 [2-isopropoxy-N-(2-(3- (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)phenylcarbamoyl)phenyl) benzamide], that act allosterically. RXFP2 activates only the Gas- andGao-coupled pathways. Relaxin-3 is primarily a neuropeptide, and its cognate receptor RXFP3 is a target for the treatment of depression, anxiety, and autism. A variety of peptide agonists, antagonists, biased agonists, and an allosteric modulator target RXFP3. Both RXFP3 and the related RXFP4 couple to Gai/Gao proteins. INSL5 has the properties of an incretin; it is secreted from the gut and is orexigenic. The expression of RXFP4 in gut, adipose tissue, and b-islets together with compromised glucose tolerance in INSL5 or RXFP4 knockout mice suggests a metabolic role. This review focuses on the many advances in our understanding of RXFP receptors in the last 5 years, their signal transductionmechanisms, the development of novel compounds that target RXFP1–4, the challenges facing the field, and current prospects for new therapeutics. © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Alexiou K.,University Heart Center Dresden |
Wilbring M.,University Heart Center Dresden |
Matschke K.,University Heart Center Dresden |
Dschietzig T.,Immundiagnostik AG |
Dschietzig T.,Charite University of Medicine Berlin Campus Mitte
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Introduction:Early allograft dysfunction following lung transplantation is mainly an ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. We showed that relaxin-2 (relaxin) exerts a protective effect in lung IR, attributable to decreases in endothelin-1 (ET-1) production, leukocyte recruitment, and free radical generation. Here, we summarize our investigations into relaxin's signalling.Materials and Methods:Isolated rat lungs were perfused with vehicle or 5 nM relaxin (n = 6-10 each). Thereafter, experiments were conducted in the presence of relaxin plus vehicle, the protein kinase A inhibitors H-89 and KT-5720, the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME, the iNOS inhibitor 1400W, the nNOS inhibitor SMTC, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2) inhibitor PD-98059, the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin, the endothelin type-B (ETB) antagonist A-192621, or the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU-486. After 90 min ischemia and 90 min reperfusion we determined wet-to-dry (W/D) weight ratio, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), vascular release of ET-1, neutrophil elastase (NE), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Primary rat pulmonary vascular cells were similarly treated.Results:IR lungs displayed significantly elevated W/D ratios, MPAP, as well as ET-1, NE, MDA, and MPO. In the presence of relaxin, all of these parameters were markedly improved. This protective effect was completely abolished by L-NAME, 1400W, PD-98059, and wortmannin whereas neither PKA and nNOS inhibition nor ETB and GR antagonism were effective. Analysis of NOS gene expression and activity revealed that the relaxin-induced early and moderate iNOS stimulation is ERK-1/2-dependent and counter-balanced by PI3K. Relaxin-PI3K-related phosphorylation of a forkhead transcription factor, FKHRL1, paralleled this regulation. In pulmonary endothelial and smooth muscle cells, FKHRL1 was essential to relaxin-PI3K signalling towards iNOS.Conclusion:In this short-time experimental setting, relaxin protects against IR-induced lung injury via early and moderate iNOS induction, dependent on balanced ERK-1/2 and PI3K-FKHRL1 stimulation. These findings render relaxin a candidate drug for lung preservation. © 2013 Alexiou et al.
Dschietzig T.B.,Immundiagnostik AG |
Dschietzig T.B.,Charite University Medicine Berlin Campus Mitte
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs | Year: 2014
Acute heart failure (AHF) syndrome, characterized by pulmonary and/or venous congestion owing to increased cardiac filling pressures with or without diminished cardiac output, is still associated with high post-discharge mortality and hospitalization rates. Many novel and promising therapeutic approaches, among them endothelin-1, vasopressin and adenosine antagonists, calcium sensitization, and recombinant B-type natriuretic hormone, have failed in large studies. Likewise, the classic drugs, vasodilators, diuretics, and inotropes, have never been shown to lower mortality. The phase III trial RELAX-AHF tested recombinant human relaxin-2 (rhRlx) and found it to improve clinical symptoms moderately, to be neutral regarding the combination of death and hospitalization at day 60, to be safe, and to lower mortality at day 180. This review focuses on basic research and pre-clinical findings that may account for the benefit of rhRlx in AHF. The drug combines short-term hemodynamic advantages, such as moderate blood pressure decline and functional endothelin-1 antagonism, with a wealth of protective effects harboring long-term benefits, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, and anti-oxidative actions. These pleiotropic effects are exerted through a complex and intricate signaling cascade involving the relaxin-family peptide receptor-1, the glucocorticoid receptor, nitric oxide, and a cell type-dependent variety of kinases and transcription factors. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Dschietzig T.B.,Immundiagnostik AG |
Dschietzig T.B.,University Medicine Berlin
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2014
In 1997, McPherron et al. created the so-called Mighty Mouse: owing to the knock-out of a new member of the TGF-β superfamily of peptides, this mouse line was extremely hypermuscular and also characterized by very low body fat. The new peptide, a powerful negative muscle regulator, was named myostatin.Apart from regulating skeletal muscle growth, myostatin has recently been reported to be significantly involved in different cardio-vascular and metabolic pathologies. This review is focused on these non-muscular myostatin actions. First, myostatin is intricately involved in regulating metabolism: it causes insulin resistance, and the advantageous metabolic profile achieved by myostatin inhibition is mainly attributable to its effects on skeletal muscle.Myostatin is further expressed in myocardium where it exerts anti-hypertrophic, but pro-fibrotic effects. Circulating and local myostatin is elevated in chronic heart failure and poses a major player in cardiac cachexia.Eventually, the current body of evidence regarding myostatin's significant involvement in different entities of the cachexia syndrome is summarized. Activin type-2 receptor antagonism and/or inhibitory myostatin antibodies have emerged as a promising therapeutic approach to treat the cachexia syndrome although the general applicability of this therapeutic approach to the human clinical situation has still to be demonstrated. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Immundiagnostik AG | Date: 2014-03-07
A new method of in vitro monitoring and assessing the need of a medication which interferes with the regulation of the parathyroid hormone level in a kidney patient subject to oxidative stress, notably hemodialysis patients. FIG.