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Yang G.-B.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Wang Y.,King's College London | Babaahmady K.,King's College London | Scholler J.,Immudex | And 12 more authors.
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2012

Genetic, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is critical in controlling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The objectives of this study were to determine whether novel recombinant Mamu MHC constructs would elicit protection against rectal challenge with heterologous simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) strain SF162.P4 in rhesus macaques. Mamu class I and II gene products were linked together with HIV gp140, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) p27 and heat-shock protein 70 to dextran. The vaccine was administered to two groups, each consisting of nine macaques, either subcutaneously (SC), or rectally and boosted by SC immunization. The controls were untreated or adjuvant-treated animals. Repetitive rectal challenges with up to ten doses of SHIV SF162.P4 showed a significant decrease in the peak and sequential viral RNA concentrations, and three macaques remained uninfected, in the nine SC-immunized animals, compared with infection in all nine controls. Macaques immunized rectally followed by SC boosters showed a less significant decrease in both sequential and peak viral loads compared with the SC-immunized animals, and all were infected following rectal challenge with SHIV SF162.P4. Plasma and mucosal IgG and IgA antibodies to Mamu class I alleles and HIV gp120, as well as to RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted; CCR5) were increased, and showed significant inverse correlations with the peak viral load. These results suggested that allo-immunization with recombinant MHC constructs linked to HIV-SIV antigens merits further investigation in preventing HIV-1 infection. © 2012 SGM.


Morner A.,Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control | Jansson M.,Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control | Jansson M.,Karolinska Institutet | Bunnik E.M.,University of Amsterdam | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2011

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules expressed on the surface of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are potential targets for neutralizing antibodies. Since MHC molecules are polymorphic, nonself MHC can also be immunogenic. We have used combinations of novel recombinant HLA class I and II and HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) antigens, all linked to dextran, to investigate whether they can elicit protective immunity against heterologous simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge in rhesus macaques. Three groups of animals were immunized with HLA (group 1, n = 8), trimeric YU2 HIV type 1 (HIV-1) gp140 and SIV p27 (HIV/SIV antigens; group 2, n = 8), or HLA plus HIV/SIV antigens (group 3, n = 8), all with Hsp70 and TiterMax Gold adjuvant. Another group (group 4, n = 6) received the same vaccine as group 3 without TiterMax Gold. Two of eight macaques in group 3 were completely protected against intravenous challenge with 18 50% animal infective doses (AID50) of SHIV-SF162P4/C grown in human cells expressing HLA class I and II lineages represented in the vaccine, while the remaining six macaques showed decreased viral loads compared to those in unimmunized animals. Complement-dependent neutralizing activity in serum and high levels of anti-HLA antibodies were elicited in groups 1 and 3, and both were inversely correlated with the plasma viral load at 2 weeks postchallenge. Antibody-mediated protection was strongly supported by the fact that transfer of pooled serum from the two challenged but uninfected animals protected two naïve animals against repeated low-dose challenge with the same SHIV stock. This study demonstrates that immunization with recombinant HLA in combination with HIV-1 antigens might be developed into an alternative strategy for a future AIDS vaccine. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.


Kasmar A.G.,Harvard University | Van Rhijn I.,Harvard University | Van Rhijn I.,University Utrecht | Magalhaes K.G.,Harvard University | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2013

Human CD1a mediates foreign Ag recognition by a T cell clone, but the nature of possible TCR interactions with CD1a/lipid are unknown. After incubating CD1a with a mycobacterial lipopeptide Ag, dideoxymycobactin (DDM), we identified and measured binding to a recombinant TCR (TRAV3/TRBV3-1, K D of ≈100 μM). Detection of ternary CD1a/lipid/TCR interactions enabled development of CD1a tetramers and CD1a multimers with carbohydrate backbones (dextramers), which specifically stained T cells using a mechanism that was dependent on the precise stereochemistry of the peptide backbone and was blocked with a soluble TCR. Furthermore, sorting of human T cells from unrelated tuberculosis patients for bright DDM-dextramer staining allowed recovery of T cells that were activated by CD1a and DDM. These studies demonstrate that the mechanism of T cell activation by lipopeptides occurs via ternary interactions of CD1a/Ag/TCR. Furthermore, these studies demonstrate the existence of lipopeptide-specific T cells in humans ex vivo. Copyright © 2013 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.


Wang Y.,King's College London | Whittall T.,King's College London | Rahman D.,King's College London | Bunnik E.M.,AMC Medical Research | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The AID/APOBEC family (activation induced deaminase/apolipoprotein B mRNA editing cytokine deaminase) in B cells play important roles in adaptive and innate immunity. Whereas APOBEC3G has been studied in CD4+ T cells and myeloid cells its functional potential in B cells has received little attention. AID combines two critical functions of antibodies, class switching and affinity maturation and may serve as a functional surrogate of protection. These functions were studied following systemic immunization of rhesus macaques with recombinant HLA constructs, linked with HIV and SIV antigens and HSP70 to dextran. The results showed significant upregulation of AID in CD20+ B cells, APOBEC 3G in CD27+ memory B cells and CD4+ effector memory T cells. After immunization the upregulated APOBEC 3G and AID were directly correlated in B cells (p<0.0001). Following challenge with SHIV SF162.P4 the viral load was inversely correlated with AID in B cells and APOBEC 3G in B and T cells, suggesting that both deaminases may have protective functions. Investigation of major interactions between DC, T cells and B cells showed significant increase in membrane associated IL-15 in DC and CD40L in CD4+ T cells. IL-15 binds the IL-15 receptor complex in CD4+ T and B cells, which may reactivate the DC, T and B cell interactions. The overall results are consistent with AID inhibiting pre-entry SHIV by eliciting IgG and IgA antibodies, whereas APOBEC 3G may contribute to the post-entry control of SHIV replication and cellular spread. © 2012 Wang et al.


Scholler J.,Immudex | Singh M.,Lionex GmbH and Helmholtx Center for Infection Research | Bergmeier L.,King's College London | Brunstedt K.,Immudex | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Immunological Methods | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to produce and evaluate the immunogenic potential of a recombinant HLA-class I antigen linked to dextran. The HLA-A*0201 heavy chain and β2 microglobulin were cloned by PCR amplification of overlapping oligonucleotides and produced in E. coli. These were assembled with a CMV binding peptide motif, the HLA complex was biotinylated and bound by streptavidin coated dextran at a ratio of 24 HLA to 1 dextran molecule (termed Dextramer). Allostimulation of human PBMC in vitro and in vivo immunization of Balb c mice with the HLA-A*0201 construct elicited CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferative responses, IgG specific antibodies in mice and in human T cell proliferation and APOBEC3G mRNA. These adaptive and innate immune responses induced by a novel recombinant HLA construct in human cells and mice suggest their application as a potential vaccine candidate against HIV infection. © 2010.


Tario J.D.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | Chen G.L.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | Hahn T.E.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | Pan D.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | And 7 more authors.
Cytometry Part B - Clinical Cytometry | Year: 2015

The enumeration of antigen-specific T cells is increasingly relevant in clinical and research settings. This information is useful for evaluating immune responses to treatment, monitoring the efficacy of anticancer vaccines, and for detecting self-reactive T cells in autoimmune disorders. Quantifying antigen-specific T cells can be accomplished via IFNγ ELISpot assay, the measurement of intracellular cytokine production by flow cytometry, or by lymphocyte proliferation assays in response to antigen. While robust, these technologies are labor-intensive and can take several days to obtain results. New technology has led to more powerful tools for quickly and accurately measuring antigen-specific T cells by flow cytometry via fluorescently-labeled TCR-specific multimers. In this study, we evaluated the use of an assay based on Dextramer reagents for enumerating cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigen-specific T cells (CASTs). Assay performance characteristics were assessed by establishing Dextramers' sensitivity (median=0.4; range=0.1-1.4 CASTs μl-1), determining their specificity (100%), evaluating assay robustness with different leukocyte sources and assay reproducibility via interlaboratory and interinstrument investigations. Furthermore, the levels of CASTs in 95 peripheral blood samples from 62 unique blood and marrow transplants recipients correlated well between Dextramers and Tetramers (R2=0.9042). © 2014 International Clinical Cytometry Society.


PubMed | Immudex and Roswell Park Cancer Institute
Type: | Journal: Methods (San Diego, Calif.) | Year: 2016

MHC-multimers are reagents used for the detection and enumeration of antigen-specific T cells (ASTs). These reagents exploit the mechanism by which T cell receptors (TCR) on cytotoxic CD8 T cells recognize specific antigens in the context of a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule during antigen presentation. MHC-multimers are fluorescently-labeled dextran polymers that carry MHC Class I molecules and peptide sequences that can be modified to represent specific cognate sequences of the antigen of interest with dextramers having a 10-fold multiplicity of the MHC/peptide combination within a single multimer. Since the binding of antigen-specific dextramers mimics antigen presentation to the TCR, the present study sought to determine whether this TCR engagement on the AST was sufficient to elicit a functional T cell response. The effect of binding of CMV specific dextramers on the activation of the NFAT signal transduction cascade was assessed in peripheral blood from bone marrow transplant recipients previously determined to be positive for CMV-ASTs (CASTs). NFAT activation was quantified by measuring nuclear translocation of NFAT1 in CD8+ CASTs and CD8+ non-CASTs by imaging flow cytometry. Our results demonstrate that an increase in the nuclear localization of NFAT1 was detectable in the CASTs following the CMV-dextramer binding and could be observed as early as 10min post-exposure. The NFAT1 activation correlated with a downstream functional response in the form of interferon gamma production. Sample preparation, temperature, and duration of dextramer exposure were important parameters affecting the dextramer-induced NFAT activation with 2h exposure in whole blood at room temperature being the optimal of the conditions tested. Intra- and inter-individual heterogeneity was observed with regards to the NFAT activation in the CASTs. Importantly, no effect of the dextramers was observed in the CD8+ non-CASTs, and therefore dextramer negative cell populations. Exposure to PMA/ionomycin following dextramer exposure resulted in a homogeneous NFAT activation in both the dextramer-positive but NFAT1 nonresponsive CAST and non-CAST cells. Thus, the data demonstrate that binding of antigen-specific dextramers to ASTs specifically results in activation of NFAT, that the NFAT activation correlates with a downstream functional response and that the response can be heterogeneous. This functional parameter may provide insight to the issue whether enumeration alone of ASTs is a sufficient parameter to assess an individuals immune status against a specific antigen.


Kim Y.-H.,Leiden University | Faaij C.M.J.M.,Leiden University | van Halteren A.G.S.,Leiden University | Schrama E.,Leiden University | And 9 more authors.
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2012

HY-specific T cells are presumed to play a role in acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after female-to-male stem cell transplantation (SCT). However, infiltrates of these T cells in aGVHD-affected tissues have not yet been reported. We evaluated the application of HLA-A2/HY dextramers for the in situ detection of HY-specific T cells in cryopreserved skin biopsy specimens. We applied the HLA-A2/HY dextramers on cryopreserved skin biopsy specimens from seven male HLA-A2+ pediatric patients who underwent stem cell transplantation with confirmed aGVHD involving the skin. The dextramers demonstrated the presence of HY-specific T cells. In skin biopsy specimens of three male recipients of female grafts, 68% to 78% of all skin-infiltrating CD8+ T cells were HY-specific, whereas these cells were absent in biopsy specimens collected from sex-matched patient-donor pairs. Although this study involved a small and heterogeneous patient group, our results strongly support the hypothesis that HY-specific T cells are actively involved in the pathophysiology of aGVHD after sex-mismatched stem cell transplantation. © 2012 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

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