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Campbell, CA, United States

Petitgas P.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Secor D.H.,UMCES | McQuinn I.,iML Inc | Huse G.,IMR | Lo N.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2010

Experience has established that the recovery of many collapsed stocks takes much longer than predicted by traditional fishery population models. We put forward the hypothesis that stock collapse is associated with disruption of the biological mechanisms that sustain life-cycle closure of intrapopulation contingents. Based on a review of case studies of nine marine fish stocks, we argue that stock collapses not only involve biomass loss, but also the loss of structural elements related to life-cycle diversity (contingents), as well as the breakdown of socially transmitted traditions (through a curtailed age range). Behavioural mechanisms associated with these structural elements could facilitate recovery of depleted populations. Migratory behaviour is argued to relate to phenotypic plasticity and the persistence of migration routes to social interactions. The case studies represent collapsed or depleted populations that recovered after a relatively short period (striped bass, capelin), after more than a decade (herring and sardine), or not at all (anchovy, cod). Contrasting the population dynamics from these stocks leads us to make a distinction between a depleted and a collapsed population, where, in addition to biomass depletion, the latter includes damage to contingent structure or space-use pattern. We also propose a mechanism to explain how lost habitats are recolonized. © 2010 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Oxford Journals. All rights reserved. Source


Naldi A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Remy E.,iML Inc | Thieffry D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Thieffry D.,French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation | And 2 more authors.
Theoretical Computer Science | Year: 2011

To cope with the increasing complexity of regulatory networks, we define a reduction method for multi-valued logical models. Starting with a detailed model, we use decision diagrams to compute reduced models by iteratively "removing" regulatory components. To keep a consistent dynamical behaviour, the logical rules associated with the targets of each removed node are actualised to account for the (indirect) effects of its regulators. This construction of reduced models preserves crucial dynamical properties of the original model, including stable states and more complex attractors. In this respect, the relationship between the attractor configuration of the original model and those of reduced models is formally established. We further analyse the issue of attractor reachability. Finally, we illustrate the flexibility and efficiency of the proposed reduction method by its application to a multi-valued model of the fly segment polarity network, which is involved in the control of segmentation during early embryogenesis. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


One of the most difficult tasks in forensic pathology is deciding the origin and the cause of death after the autopsy when those issues are unclear or debatable. A technically perfect autopsy is a necessary but not a sufficient condition to adequately fulfil this decision. The present paper clearly defines the concepts of cause and mechanism of death, natural and violent death. We review many aspects related to the diagnosis of the origin and cause of death, especially the current approach of the value of autopsy in the diagnosis, the interaction between trauma and disease, the doctrine of causation, the use of ICD- 10, the so-called manner of death, the psychological autopsy, the negative autopsy and the origin of death from therapeutic complication, and so on., all of which are illustrated with relevant examples. We also discuss the limited role of the forensic pathologist in Spain in determining the so-called manner of death. The conclusions include(s) a list of recommendations for the best performance of this work, including the abandonment of the so-called unacceptable causes of death -as cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest or brain death, and so onand whenever possible the adoption of the classification of ICD-10 and the standard paragraph in which the cause of death is informed (part I and II), as proposed by the WHO international certificate of death. These conclusions intend to be a brief guide to provide a fair judicial outcome and enhance the forensic pathologist's credibility. Source


Grant
Agency: National Science Foundation | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2003

This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II research project aims to produce a working prototype sensor array monitoring system that detects, identifies, and localizes the infrasound generated by snow avalanches. The goal of the project is to bring to commercial form automated monitoring systems that improve the safety and welfare of those impacted by avalanche activity. Avalanche-generated infrasound signals can propagate miles from their origin, and provide a basis for automated monitoring and warning systems. Previously developed single sensor infrasound monitoring systems can detect and identify avalanche-generated infrasound in an automated near real-time manner, but performance suffers when avalanche signal amplitudes are small and/or during high wind noise periods. By advancing and refining array-based signal processing algorithms, sensor array monitoring can provide spatial information that greatly improves avalanche signal identification in varying signal and noise conditions while also providing the geographic location of the avalanche signal origin. Identification of avalanche occurrences will improve safety in avalanche prone terrain and minimize direct and indirect costs associated with avalanche activity. Automated notification of unexpected avalanche activity will provide a prompt for early response activities. Knowledge garnered through this project will advance the field of applied infrasonic sensor array monitoring, an infant science. Innovative hardware and software components that are designed and proven will be available for other infrasound monitoring applications such as tornadoes, volcanoes, flash floods, ocean storms, calving glaciers, aura borealis, ridgeline winds, explosions, and aircraft.


Grant
Agency: National Science Foundation | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 500.00K | Year: 2005

This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II research project aims to produce a working prototype sensor array monitoring system that detects, identifies, and localizes the infrasound generated by snow avalanches. The goal of the project is to bring to commercial form automated monitoring systems that improve the safety and welfare of those impacted by avalanche activity. Avalanche-generated infrasound signals can propagate miles from their origin, and provide a basis for automated monitoring and warning systems. Previously developed single sensor infrasound monitoring systems can detect and identify avalanche-generated infrasound in an automated near real-time manner, but performance suffers when avalanche signal amplitudes are small and/or during high wind noise periods. By advancing and refining array-based signal processing algorithms, sensor array monitoring can provide spatial information that greatly improves avalanche signal identification in varying signal and noise conditions while also providing the geographic location of the avalanche signal origin. Identification of avalanche occurrences will improve safety in avalanche prone terrain and minimize direct and indirect costs associated with avalanche activity. Automated notification of unexpected avalanche activity will provide a prompt for early response activities. Knowledge garnered through this project will advance the field of applied infrasonic sensor array monitoring, an infant science. Innovative hardware and software components that are designed and proven will be available for other infrasound monitoring applications such as tornadoes, volcanoes, flash floods, ocean storms, calving glaciers, aura borealis, ridgeline winds, explosions, and aircraft.

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