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Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany

Schepers D.,SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research | Guerlet S.,SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research | Butz A.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Landgraf J.,SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2012

We compare two conceptually different methods for determining methane column-averaged mixing ratios (XCH4) from Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) shortwave infrared (SWIR) measurements. These methods account differently for light scattering by aerosol and cirrus. The proxy method retrieves a CO2 column which, in conjunction with prior knowledge on CO2 acts as a proxy for scattering effects. The physics-based method accounts for scattering by retrieving three effective parameters of a scattering layer. Both retrievals are validated on a 19-month data set using ground-based XCH4 measurements at 12 stations of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), showing comparable performance: for the proxy retrieval we find station-dependent retrieval biases from -0.312% to 0.421% of XCH4 with a standard deviation of 0.22% and a typical precision of 17 ppb. The physics method shows biases between -0.836% and -0.081% with a standard deviation of 0.24% and a precision similar to the proxy method. Complementing this validation we compared both retrievals with simulated methane fields from a global chemistry-transport model. This identified shortcomings of both retrievals causing biases of up to 1ings and provide a satisfying validation of any methane retrieval from space-borne SWIR measurements, in our opinion it is essential to further expand the network of TCCON stations. © Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

Chevallier F.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Deutscher N.M.,University of Bremen | Deutscher N.M.,University of Wollongong | Conway T.J.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | And 29 more authors.
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2011

We present the first estimate of the global distribution of CO 2 surface fluxes from 14 stations of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The evaluation of this inversion is based on 1) comparison with the fluxes from a classical inversion of surface air-sample-measurements, and 2) comparison of CO 2 mixing ratios calculated from the inverted fluxes with independent aircraft measurements made during the two years analyzed here, 2009 and 2010. The former test shows similar seasonal cycles in the northern hemisphere and consistent regional carbon budgets between inversions from the two datasets, even though the TCCON inversion appears to be less precise than the classical inversion. The latter test confirms that the TCCON inversion has improved the quality (i.e., reduced the uncertainty) of the surface fluxes compared to the assumed or prior fluxes. The consistency between the surface-air-sample-based and the TCCON-based inversions despite remaining flaws in transport models opens the possibility of increased accuracy and robustness of flux inversions based on the combination of both data sources and confirms the usefulness of space-borne monitoring of the CO 2 column. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

Wunch D.,California Institute of Technology | Wennberg P.O.,California Institute of Technology | Toon G.C.,California Institute of Technology | Toon G.C.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory | And 41 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2011

We describe a method of evaluating systematic errors in measurements of total column dry-air mole fractions of CO 2 (X CO2) from space, and we illustrate the method by applying it to the v2.8 Atmospheric CO 2 Observations from Space retrievals of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (ACOS-GOSAT) measurements over land. The approach exploits the lack of large gradients in X CO2 south of 25° S to identify large-scale offsets and other biases in the ACOS-GOSAT data with several retrieval parameters and errors in instrument calibration. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method by comparing the ACOS-GOSAT data in the Northern Hemisphere with ground truth provided by the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). We use the observed correlation between free-tropospheric potential temperature and X CO2 in the Northern Hemisphere to define a dynamically informed coincidence criterion between the ground-based TCCON measurements and the ACOS-GOSAT measurements. We illustrate that this approach provides larger sample sizes, hence giving a more robust comparison than one that simply uses time, latitude and longitude criteria. Our results show that the agreement with the TCCON data improves after accounting for the systematic errors, but that extrapolation to conditions found outside the region south of 25° S may be problematic (e.g., high airmasses, large surface pressure biases, M-gain, measurements made over ocean). A preliminary evaluation of the improved v2.9 ACOS-GOSAT data is also discussed. © 2011 Author(s). Source

Deng F.,University of Toronto | Jones D.B.A.,University of Toronto | Jones D.B.A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Henze D.K.,University of Colorado at Boulder | And 20 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2014

We have examined the utility of retrieved column-averaged, dry-air mole fractions of CO2 (XCO2) from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) for quantifying monthly, regional flux estimates of CO2, using the GEOS-Chem four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system. We focused on assessing the potential impact of biases in the GOSAT CO2 data on the regional flux estimates. Using different screening and bias correction approaches, we selected three different subsets of the GOSAT XCO2 data for the 4D-Var inversion analyses, and found that the inferred global fluxes were consistent across the three XCO2 inversions. However, the GOSAT observational coverage was a challenge for the regional flux estimates. In the northern extratropics, the inversions were more sensitive to North American fluxes than to European and Asian fluxes due to the lack of observations over Eurasia in winter and over eastern and southern Asia in summer. The regional flux estimates were also sensitive to the treatment of the residual bias in the GOSAT XCO2 data. The largest differences obtained were for temperate North America and temperate South America, for which the largest spread between the inversions was 1.02 and 0.96 Pg C, respectively. In the case of temperate North America, one inversion suggested a strong source, whereas the second and third XCO2 inversions produced a weak and strong sink, respectively. Despite the discrepancies in the regional flux estimates between the three XCO2 inversions, the a posteriori CO 2 distributions were in good agreement (with a mean difference between the three inversions of typically less than 0.5 ppm) with independent data from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), the surface flask network, and from the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) aircraft campaign. The discrepancy in the regional flux estimates from the different inversions, despite the agreement of the global flux estimates suggests the need for additional work to determine the minimum spatial scales at which we can reliably quantify the fluxes using GOSAT XCO2. The fact that the a posteriori CO2 from the different inversions were in good agreement with the independent data although the regional flux estimates differed significantly, suggests that innovative ways of exploiting existing data sets, and possibly additional observations, are needed to better evaluate the inferred regional flux estimates. © 2014 Author(s). Source

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