Alcalá de Henares, Spain
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Pradas A.E.,IMIDRA | Lobo M.C.,IMIDRA | Gil-Diaz M.,IMIDRA | Perez-Sanz A.,IMIDRA
E3S Web of Conferences | Year: 2013

Chromium is a heavy metal widely used in industry. Its two most stable oxidation states are Cr+3 and Cr+6. Cr+3 is less soluble and remains adsorbed or precipitated in soils, meanwhile Cr+6 is soluble and also a high toxic specie for living organisms. In natural environments, Cr+3 is the most common specie, but industrial sources of Cr(VI) could cause environmental problems in soils, especially in agricultural systems. To some extent Cr+6 could be reduced to Cr+3 by the action of low pH and organic matter. In order to evaluate the influence of soil characteristics on bioavalability and stability of Cr+6, three different agricultural soils from Madrid region (Spain) were spiked with K2O2O7 to reach a Cr+6 concentration of 250 mg·L-1 and incubated at 25°C in dark. After 14, 28 and 42 days of incubation, Cr+3 was measured in the following fractions: 1) water soluble fraction, 2) exchangeable fraction and 3) total in soil. Most of Cr+3 remaining in soil was found in the water soluble or exchangeable fraction, especially in the batch of basic soil. Results from this study confirm the environmental hazard caused by chromium spills in soils as it is available to plants and could be leachated to the ground water for long time. © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2013.

De AndrEs M.T.,IMIDRA | Benito A.,IMIDRA | PErez-Rivera G.,CBGP INIA | Ocete R.,University of Seville | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2012

The wild grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi, considered as the ancestor of the cultivated grapevine, is native from Eurasia. In Spain, natural populations of V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris can still be found along river banks. In this work, we have performed a wide search of wild grapevine populations in Spain and characterized the amount and distribution of their genetic diversity using 25 nuclear SSR loci. We have also analysed the possible coexistence in the natural habitat of wild grapevines with naturalized grapevine cultivars and rootstocks. In this way, phenotypic and genetic analyses identified 19% of the collected samples as derived from cultivated genotypes, being either naturalized cultivars or hybrid genotypes derived from spontaneous crosses between wild and cultivated grapevines. The genetic diversity of wild grapevine populations was similar than that observed in the cultivated group. The molecular analysis showed that cultivated germplasm and wild germplasm are genetically divergent with low level of introgression. Using a model-based approach implemented in the software structure, we identified four genetic groups, with two of them fundamentally represented among cultivated genotypes and two among wild accessions. The analyses of genetic relationships between wild and cultivated grapevines could suggest a genetic contribution of wild accessions from Spain to current Western cultivars. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Gonzalez M.,Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | Gonzalez M.,Plant Health Institute | Pujol M.,Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | Metraux J.-P.,University of Fribourg | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is a soil-borne fungal pathogen that causes disease in a wide range of plants worldwide. Strains of the fungus are traditionally grouped into genetically isolated anastomosis groups (AGs) based on hyphal anastomosis reactions. This article summarizes aspects related to the infection process, colonization of the host and molecular mechanisms employed by tobacco plants in resistance against R. solani diseases. Taxonomy: Teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk; anamorph: Rhizoctonia solani Kühn; Kingdom Fungi; Phylum Basidiomycota; Class Agaricomycetes; Order Cantharellales; Family Ceratobasidiaceae; genus Thanatephorus. Identification: Somatic hyphae in culture and hyphae colonizing a substrate or host are first hyaline, then buff to dark brown in colour when aging. Hyphae tend to form at right angles at branching points that are usually constricted. Cells lack clamp connections, but possess a complex dolipore septum with continuous parenthesomes and are multinucleate. Hyphae are variable in size, ranging from 3 to 17μm in diameter. Although the fungus does not produce any conidial structure, ellipsoid to globose, barrel-shaped cells, named monilioid cells, 10-20μm wide, can be produced in chains and can give rise to sclerotia. Sclerotia are irregularly shaped, up to 8-10mm in diameter and light to dark brown in colour. Disease symptoms: Symptoms in tobacco depend on AG as well as on the tissue being colonized. Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 and AG-3 infect tobacco seedlings and cause damping off and stem rot. Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 causes 'sore shin' and 'target spot' in mature tobacco plants. In general, water-soaked lesions start on leaves and extend up the stem. Stem lesions vary in colour from brown to black. During late stages, diseased leaves are easily separated from the plant because of severe wilting. In seed beds, disease areas are typically in the form of circular to irregular patches of poorly growing, yellowish and/or stunted seedlings. Resistance: Knowledge is scarce regarding the mechanisms associated with resistance to R. solani in tobacco. However, recent evidence suggests a complex response that involves several constitutive factors, as well as induced barriers controlled by multiple defence pathways. Management: This fungus can survive for many years in soil as mycelium, and also by producing sclerotia, which makes the management of the disease using conventional means very difficult. Integrated pest management has been most successful; it includes timely fungicide applications, crop rotation and attention to soil moisture levels. Recent developments in biocontrol may provide other tools to control R. solani in tobacco. © 2010 CIGB. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2010 BSPP And Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Ruiz-Colmenero M.,IMIDRA | Bienes R.,IMIDRA | Bienes R.,University of Alcalá | Eldridge D.J.,University of New South Wales | Marques M.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Catena | Year: 2013

Land degradation, and soil and nutrient loss, are significant environmental problems in semi-arid agricultural environments in the Mediterranean Basin. One land use that is particularly associated with the highest rates of erosion in Spain is extensive vineyards. We examined the effectiveness of two cover crops for improving soil physical properties and reducing erosion in a vineyard located in the Henares River basin southeast of Madrid, Spain. We assessed erosion from three replicate plots of 2m2 each with three treatments that comprised: traditional tillage, permanent cover of Brachypodium distachyon and spring-mown crop of Secale cereale. Erosion plots under traditional tillage yielded substantially more erosion (5.88tha-1yr-1) than Brachypodium (0.78tha-1yr-1) or Secale (1.27tha-1yr-1). While the concentration of SOC in sediments was greater for the cover crops, the mass-corrected loss of SOC was greater under tillage (0.06tha-1yr-1) than under Brachypodium or Secale (0.02tha-1yr-1). Root biomass was two- to four-times greater under the vegetation treatments. Our measure of aggregate stability for the tillage treatment remained between 7.9 and 5.4 drops over the four years of study and values for both cover crops exceeded that for Tillage by the end of the second year. The vegetation cover treatments increased SOC by 1.2% and intrapedal SOC by 10-60% compared with Tillage. By the end of the study, steady-state infiltration in the cover treatments was 45% greater than that under tillage, with the largest increase under Brachypodium. We attribute the greater infiltration on cover treatments to a greater abundance of larger pores on vegetated compared with tilled plots. Our study reinforces the notion that there are considerable benefits of using cover crops in rainfed vineyards, not only for prevention of soil erosion, but to enhance soil condition and potentially reduce the heavy reliance on industrial fertilisers. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Pena-Fernandez A.,University of Alcalá | Gonzalez-Munoz M.J.,University of Alcalá | Lobo-Bedmar M.C.,IMIDRA
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Human hair is used as a biomonitor to evaluate the environmental exposure to contaminants in the individual. However, the use of human hair is controversial, mainly because reference levels for pollutants in hair have not yet been set. In the case of Spain, few biomonitoring studies have involved infants and children. A biomonitoring study was conducted to investigate the possible normal values of trace elements of toxicological concern in children aged 6-9 years from the city of Alcalá de Henares, Community of Madrid (Spain), following the methodology and strict inclusion criteria previously developed by our group. Levels of Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Ti, Tl, V and Zn were monitored in scalp-hair from 117 healthy children (47 boys and 70 girls) between April and May of 2001. The levels of trace elements here described could be considered as possible "reference values" for children aged 6-9 years resident in the Community of Madrid. These values might also be selected as a preliminary screening tool to evaluate if a Spanish child has been exposed to any of the contaminants studied here. This study also investigated whether local urban topsoils were a source of metals for this population. © 2014.

Ruiz-Colmenero M.,IMIDRA | Bienes R.,IMIDRA | Bienes R.,University of Alcalá | Marques M.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2011

Vineyards are customarily managed using tillage to eliminate competition from other plants. If the vineyards are on a slope, however, this process leads to considerable soil loss. The impacts of the practice on organic matter and the associated nutrient depletion can pose a threat to soil and water conservation. This paper considers three active rain fed vineyards in central Spain. Over two years, during which the erosivity of the rains was very low, we measured erosion rates between 35 and 179gm-2y-1 using erosion plots of 2m2. The associated sediment had an organic matter Enrichment Ratio ranging from 1.4 to 2. Values similar to these were found for nitrogen and phosphorus. These findings indicate that alternative soil management practices, such as the use of vegetation cover, should be considered. A permanent cover consisting of Brachypodium distachyon was tested, as were covers of barley, rye and spontaneous vegetation cut in the spring. These tests resulted in reduced soil loss. The treatments exhibited erosion rates between 2 and 32gm-2y-1. We also noted a decrease in the runoff coefficient. The average runoff coefficients for the study period were 5% for tilled soil, 0.9% for permanent covers and 1.4% for cut covers. We note that the infiltration benefits of tillage were only temporary because on an annual scale, the change in the soil structure led to sealing and increased runoff and erosion. Nevertheless, the moisture in the soil during the vineyard's vegetative period was higher in traditionally tilled treatments. Although the transpiration through the permanent cover was offset by the ability of the cover to favor infiltration, the cover competed actively for water and resulted, on average, in 40% lower grape yields, with variations among the different vineyards. A similar decrease in yield (44%) was noted for the cover crop consisting of cut spontaneous vegetation. The cut cover crops of rye and barley did not significantly reduce grape yield. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Balboa-Lagunero T.,IMIDRA | Arroyo T.,IMIDRA | Cabellos J.M.,IMIDRA | Aznar M.,IMIDRA | Aznar M.,University of Zaragoza
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2011

The aromatic profiles of different Spanish red wines undergoing natural and forced oxidation were examined using sensory, gas chromatography/ol facto metry (GC/O), and quantitative analyses. A significant increase in oxidation descriptors such as cognac/brandy/sherry wine or old wine/matured wine was observed after wine oxidation, and wines also lost some of their herbal, fresh, fruity, and flowery notes. This change in the aroma profile was linked to an increase in compounds such as methional, (Z)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-octenal, furaneol, dodecanal, (Z)-whiskey lactone, and o-aminoacetophenone and a decrease of some volatiles with herbal, fruity, and flowery descriptors, such as (Z)-3-hexenol, ethyl hexanoate, and isoeugenol. Quantitative analyses confirmed the importance of aldehydes in the oxidation processes, especially in forced oxidations, where most of the aldehydes reached very high concentrations, such as methional (83.6 μg/L), phenylacetaldehyde (90.2 μg/L), furfural (183.7 μg/L), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (89.9 μg/L), and 2-methylpropanal (197.7 μg/L). © 2011 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture.

Gonzlez A.,IMIDRA | Bermejo V.,CIEMAT | Gimeno B.S.,CIEMAT
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2010

Drought is the main factor limiting the productivity of crops in Mediterranean areas. The introduction of physiological traits into crops that improve their tolerance to drought is necessary if yields under these conditions are to be efficiently improved. The effect of drought on different gas exchange variables, i.e. net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf chlorophyll concentration (Chl), and the relationship of these variables with yield were studied in 12 barley genotypes grown under irrigated and terminal drought conditions. The variable most sensitive to water deficit was gs (mean reduction 43% with respect to control conditions), followed by A (mean reduction 34%). The mean reduction of yield by terminal drought was 27%. A significant correlation was seen between these physiological traits and yield. The effect of water deficit on A, gs and Chl was smaller in the breeding lines than in the traditional varieties assayed, in agreement with the results found for yield. These results suggest a potential indirect selection of physiological characteristics in these breeding lines that allow greater tolerance to drought. The response of the different genotypes examined was not homogeneous across all the variables analysed. This variability is important in programmes aiming to obtain drought-tolerant genotypes via the optimization of traits such as those above. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

Mauri P.V.,IMIDRA | Manzanera J.A.,Technical University of Madrid
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2011

The production of ethylene and the endogenous content of polyamines (PAs) have been recorded during the early development, maturation and germination of holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) somatic embryos. Ethylene production was high in embryogenic callus, immature somatic embryos and in explants showing secondary embryogenesis, while it was lower in mature and germinating somatic embryos. A higher ethylene production was also associated to the process of secondary embryogenesis. The exogenous application of 1-amino-1-cyclohexane carboxylic acid was not significantly effective on the production of ethylene by holm oak somatic embryos. Total PAs were more abundant in embryogenic callus and in both somatic and zygotic immature embryos, decreasing later on in the mature and germination phases. Immature somatic embryos of holm oak and immature zygotic embryos contain high levels of spermidine (Spd), which decreased during maturation and germination. Spermine (Spm) concentration was lower than that of Spd. Spm was more abundant in embryogenic callus and immature zygotic embryos than in mature embryos. Ethylene production did not seem to interfere with PA metabolism. © 2010 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.

Gonzalez A.,IMIDRA | Del Mar Gil-Diaz M.,IMIDRA | Del Carmen Lobo M.,IMIDRA
Journal of Soils and Sediments | Year: 2016

Purpose: The objective of the study was to evaluate the tolerance of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) in soil contaminated with different concentrations of Cd and Cr, the effect of these metals on some physiological characteristics and the biomass produced in order to assess their potential application in phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Materials and methods: A greenhouse experiment using two cultivars of barley, CB502 and Pedrezuela, and one of wheat, Albares, was conducted. The pots were watered with different concentrations of Cd or Cr during the period of plant growth. Cellular membrane damage, content and fluorescence of chlorophyll, and plant biomass were evaluated. After harvesting, the content of metals in the roots, shoots and grains was analysed as well as the available metal concentration in soil samples. Results and discussion: The results show that the Cd treatments did not significantly affect the growth and physiology of the plants, but they were affected by the Cr treatments. At the highest concentration of Cr, the decrease in chlorophyll content compared to the control was 44, 77 and 83 % for the CB502 and Pedrezuela barleys and the Albares wheat respectively. A reduction in biomass was also observed (74, 81 and 85 % respectively). The amount of Cd and Cr accumulated in the root was higher than that accumulated in the aerial part for the three cultivars. The barleys accumulated the highest amount of metal in the roots. The transfer factor was lower in barley than in the wheat for both metals. Conclusions: Cadmium treatments do not affect plant development. In the case of Cr, plant development and physiological traits were significantly affected. For the highest concentration of Cr, the CB502 barley had the highest tolerance index, 26 %, and the Albares wheat had the lowest one, 15 %. The two barleys were more effective in phytoremediation of soil contaminated with Cd or Cr than the wheat, presenting a higher tolerance to these metals in the assayed conditions. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

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