IMIDA Acuicultura

Murcia, Spain

IMIDA Acuicultura

Murcia, Spain
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Claret A.,IRTA Food Technology | Guerrero L.,IRTA Food Technology | Aguirre E.,AGAPA Agencia de Gestion Agraria y Pesquera de Andalucia | Rincon L.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | And 4 more authors.
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2012

The fishing industry plays an important role in the EU economy. Within the EU member states, Spain is the largest fish producer (catches and aquaculture) in terms of volume and also one of the major fish and fishing products consuming countries. However, despite the role of this food category in the Mediterranean diet, fish consumption might experience an important decrease in the future as a result of the changes in food habits observed over the last years. The main objective of the present paper was to investigate, by means of an exploratory study, the relative importance of different attributes on consumer perception of different factors (country of origin, obtaining method, storage conditions and purchasing price) in the decision making process when choosing sea fish in general. To achieve this goal the study was organized in two complementary steps: a qualitative approach (focus group discussions) aimed to identify which attributes and levels were considered the most relevant in the decision-making process when choosing sea fish; and a quantitative approach where conjoint analysis (CA) was applied to determine the utility values for the different levels of the selected attributes and the relative importance that these attributes have for sea fish purchasers. Among others, the most important factors for consumers when choosing sea fish were the country of origin (Spain-Morocco-Norway), the obtaining method (wild-farmed sea fish), the storage conditions (chilled-frozen) and the purchasing price (6-12-18. €/kg). In general, quantitative results showed that country of origin was the most important factor when choosing sea fish, although other related factors such as perceived fish freshness might be included. The three remaining attributes had a similar moderate importance, the autochthonous fresh wild sea fish sold at 6-12. €/kg being the preferred option. Only one segment of consumers (19.6%) preferred farmed sea fish instead of wild sea fish. However the relative importance of the obtaining method attribute compared to the country of origin or the storage condition was very low. Based on these results, effective information strategies seem to be needed in order to support and increase farmed sea fish consumption, thus reducing the impact of unsustainable fishing practices and facing up to the overexploitation of the natural fish resources. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Valverde J.C.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Hernandez M.D.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Garcia-Garrido S.,IFAPA Centro Agua del Pino Ctra | Estefanell J.,Instituto Universitario Of Sanidad Animal guridad Alimentaria | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture International | Year: 2012

In this study, HPTLC was used to make a quantitative analysis of the total lipid content (TL dry weight) and their classes in 39 samples, including molluscs, crustaceans, fish and meals in an attempt to identify those most suitable for formulating diets for cephalopods by reference to an index of nutritional quality (OI LC: Oser's index modified for lipid classes). All the crustaceans analysed (<10% TL), fish from artisanal fisheries such as Boops boops, Gadus poutassou, Mugil sp. and Gadus minutus (<10% TL) and the plant meals (TL < 5%) would cause fewer digestive problems than the fish that were a by-catch from fish farms (B. boops or Sparus aurata), pelagic species (Sardina pilchardus or Trachurus trachurus) or krill meal, which are characterised by their high lipid content (20-60% TL). These latter feeds were associated with neutral lipids, mainly triglycerides during the summer. Mytilus galloprovincialis, Carcinus maenas, G. poutassou, Mugil sp., S. pilchardus and G. minutus had a more appropriate lipid content and profile during the winter, when they showed a higher OI LC due to the greater variety of polar lipid classes they contained. Phospholipids like PS, PI and PE seem to be limiting nutrients in cephalopods because of their high content (78-542, 41-309 and 152-2,114 mg/100 g, respectively) compared with the rest of the samples. None of the meals analysed showed a good nutritional balance per se and should only be used in conjunction with other foods. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Valverde J.C.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Martinez-Llorens S.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Vidal A.T.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Jover M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | And 5 more authors.
Aquaculture International | Year: 2013

The amino acid composition and protein levels of three species of cephalopods (Octopus vulgaris, Loligo gahi and Todarodes sagittatus), the natural diets of common octopus (O. vulgaris) and different kinds of meals were determined in order to optimise the content of these nutrients in artificial feeds. Arginine, leucine and lysine were the most abundant essential amino acids in cephalopods, while glutamate and aspartate represented the main non-essential amino acids. Arginine and leucine were the limiting amino acid in most samples, with maximum Chemical Score values for mussel (79-98 %), squid (84 %) and crustaceans (65-91 %); medium for fish (41-70 %); and minimum for meals (29-64 %). Mussel, squid, crustaceans and fish showed a high essential amino acid index according to Oser (OI: 88-99 %) suggesting a suitable amino acid balance. The protein from animal meals (fish and krill) covered all the essential amino acids except arginine and lysine in fish meal. The vegetable meal presented the worst amino acid balance (OI: 74-89 %) with several deficiencies in essential amino acids, including arginine, threonine, lysine and methionine. Supplementation with arginine or leucine and protein complementation of crustaceans and bivalves with fish or animal meal are proposed as alternatives for improving the performance of protein in feed for cephalopods. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Morillo-Velarde P.S.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Valverde J.C.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Serra Llinares R.M.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research | Garcia B.G.,IMIDA Acuicultura
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2013

In this work, we study the variations in concentration (mg 100 g-1 dry weight) and total content (mg individual-1) of different lipid classes in muscle and the digestive gland of Octopus vulgaris during an 8-day starvation period. In all the samples analysed, polar lipids (PL) predominated in muscle (267.3-337.2 mg 100 g-1) compared with neutral lipids (66.9-104.7 mg 100 g-1). A significant positive tendency was observed in muscle for the content and concentration of monoglycerides as a consequence of starvation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a higher cholesterol (CHO) content was detected in this tissue after the fourth day of starvation compared with the fed animals (P < 0.05). Neutral lipids predominated in the digestive gland (12 958-14 151 mg 100 g-1) compared with PL (3157-6517 mg 100 g-1), with triglycerides, free fatty acids and monoglycerides being the major lipid classes. The concentration of PL and monoglycerides showed a positive trend with starvation, while the triacylglycerol showed a negative tendency (P < 0.05). The results suggest that triglycerides and CHO are transported simultaneously from the digestive gland to the muscular tissues during starvation and the preferential use of PL and CHO during growth phases. It was estimated that lipids contributed 26% of the energy costs of the animals during starvation, mainly in the form of triglycerides from the digestive gland. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Garcia Garcia B.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Valverde J.C.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Gomez E.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Hernandez M.D.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Aguado-Gimenez F.,IMIDA Acuicultura
Aquaculture | Year: 2011

The rate of total ammonia excretion (U, mg TAN d-1) in relation to body weight (W, 490-3460g) and absolute protein feeding rate (APFR, 0.00-11.90gd-1) was studied in octopus (Octopus vulgaris). Using multiple regression analysis, the data obtained were fitted to the equation U=13.91+0.07W+0.02W×APFR, which explained 95% of the variance observed. According to this equation, there was a significant interaction between W and APFR (W×APFR), the coefficient of W varying linearly with APFR (b'=0.07+0.02APFR). When U was expressed as a function of body weight (Ur, mg TAN kg-1 body weight d-1), Ur basically varied as function of APFR, showing a value of 84mg TAN kg-1 body weight d-1 when the octopus was not fed and 265mg TAN kg-1 body weight d-1 when protein intake was 9gd-1. U increases linearly with body weight from 10 to 57g TAN kg-1 feed dry matter d-1 when APFR is 9gd-1. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Alvarez A.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Garcia Garcia B.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Jordan M.J.,IMIDA Recursos Naturales y Desarrollo Rural | Martinez-Conesa C.,IMIDA Recursos Naturales y Desarrollo Rural | Hernandez M.D.,IMIDA Acuicultura
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The effect on quality were assessed for gilthead seabream fed five different diets: control (basal diet); BHT (basal diet with 200 mg kg -1 of butylated hydroxytoluene); rosemary (basal diet with 600 mg kg -1 of rosemary extract - Rosmarinus officinalis); carvacrol (basal diet with 500 mg kg -1 of essential oil of Thymbra capitata, carvacrol chemotype); and thymol (basal diet with 500 mg g -1 of essential oil of Thymus zygis, subspecies gracilis, thymol chemotype). After 18 weeks of experimentation, the animals were stored on ice at 4 °C for 0, 7, 14, and 21 days. Physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out at each sampling point to determine the degree of deterioration in the gilthead seabream. Lower indices of oxidation were observed in animals who were administered feeds supplemented with BHT, carvacrol and (to a lesser degree) rosemary. Lower bacteria counts were observed for the BHT and thymol groups, in addition to a slower deterioration in terms of sensory perception. Accordingly, the addition of natural antioxidants to the diet may have an added effect on fish quality, delaying post mortem deterioration. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cerezo Valverde J.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Aguado-Gimenez F.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Dolores Hernandez M.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Garcia Garcia B.,IMIDA Acuicultura
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society | Year: 2012

Spider crab, Maja brachydactyla, is a crustacean with interesting biological characteristics for intensive aquaculture. However, physiological studies are needed to establish the optimal conditions for its culture and maintenance. We analyzed the oxygen consumption response of spider crab to gradual hypoxia in relation to animal weight (W: 0.42-1.62 kg) and water temperature (T: 17.8-26.3 C), along with its ability to recover. Spider crab behaved as an oxygen regulator, maintaining its oxygen consumption constant until it reached critical oxygen saturation. This value varied between 24.1 and 53.3% oxygen saturation (42.4 ± 7.4% Sat.; 2.95 ± 0.43 mgO2/L), and significantly depended on the temperature (P < 0.01). The lethal oxygen saturation varied from 6.8 to 19.3% Sat. (12.57 ± 4.25% Sat.; 0.88 ± 0.29 mgO2/L) depending on temperature and body weight (P < 0.05). When oxygen levels were re-established after exposure to acute hypoxia, the animals recovered, oxygen consumption remaining above the routine value for up to 15-20 h. We suggest survival oxygen saturation levels for spider crab of between 100 and 65% in the experimental conditions of this study. © 2012 the World Aquaculture Society.

Morillo-Velarde P.S.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Cerezo Valverde J.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Hernandez M.D.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Aguado-Gimenez F.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Garcia Garcia B.,IMIDA Acuicultura
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

We studied the growth of O. vulgaris and the digestibility of two semi-moist diets (50% water) based exclusively on dry and freeze-dried ingredients (Diet S: 20% gelatin, 10% egg yolk powder, 5% Sardinella aurita and 15% Todarodes sagittatus; and Diet P: the same as the previous diet but substituting T. sagittatus by pea). Both diets had a similar macronutrient composition (70-73% protein DW, 12-13% lipids DW), a firm texture when introduced into the water and good acceptability. Survival was 100% with both diets. The specific feeding rates were also similar for both diets (1.0% body weight/day; P. >. 0.05), although the best results were obtained with diet S, which was responsible for an absolute growth rate of 9.6. g/day and a feed conversion rate of 1.0, compared with the 2.2. g/day and 3.9 obtained with diet P; P. <. 0.05). The protein and lipid productive values were significantly higher for diet S than for diet P (43.6 and 13.3% vs. 20.2 and -0.5%, respectively). The good results obtained with diet S may be explained by its greater digestibility (93.3% for dry matter, 97.0% for proteins and 87.9% for lipids) compared with the corresponding value for diet P (73.8%, 92.1% and 85.0%, respectively). The findings demonstrate that O. vulgaris can be fed with dry or freeze-dried ingredients that have undergone mild heat treatments since they lead to good growth, feed efficiency and digestibility. Future studies on octopus on-growing could use a similar base to that proposed in this paper to obtain diets with better acceptability, stability or nutritional composition for commercial purposes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Morillo-Velarde P.S.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Cerezo Valverde J.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Garcia-Garcia B.,IMIDA Acuicultura
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2015

The aim of the present work was to obtain the lipid utilization of Octopus vulgaris supplying formulated semi-moist diets with different contents in cod oil (reduced from water content): 0 g kg-1 (A0, 138 g kg-1 lipids DW; N = 4), 100 g kg-1 (A100, 286 g kg-1 lipids DW; N = 6) and 200 g kg-1 (A200, 388 g kg-1 lipids DW; N = 6). The rest of the ingredients were constant in the three diets: 200 g kg-1 gelatin, 100 g kg-1 egg yolk powder, 150 g kg-1 freeze-dried Todarodes sagittatus and 50 g kg-1 freeze-dried Sardinella aurita). Survival was 100% with the three diets. The highest absolute feeding (15.8 ± 1.2 g day-1), growth (9.6 ± 1.4 g day-1; 0.91% BW day-1) and feed efficiency rates (60.3%) were obtained with diet A0. This diet also showed greater retention of lipid and protein than A100 and A200. Protein digestibility was above 95% in all of the diets. Only diet A0 led to a high lipid digestibility coefficient (81.25%), which fell drastically to 12.3% in A200. It was notable the high polar lipid digestibility rates (83-89%) respect to neutral lipids (2-87%) in all diets. The best results were obtained with lipid feeding rates of around 1 g day-1 and a suitable lipid content on 130-140 g kg-1 DW in formulated diets for O. vulgaris. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Valverde J.C.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Hernandez M.D.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Aguado-Gimenez F.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Morillo-Velarde P.S.,IMIDA Acuicultura | Garcia B.G.,IMIDA Acuicultura
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2013

Growth, feed efficiency and proximate and lipid class composition of subadults Octopus vulgaris (788 ± 133 g; 18.5°C) fed formulated diets of low lipid (LL: 8 g kg-1) and high lipid levels (HL: 84 g kg-1) and each one of these with three different levels of glutamate supplementation (0, 5 and 20 g kg-1) were compared. All the animals accepted the diets with a survival of 100%. The addition of glutamate did not stimulate feeding rates in any of the assays (2.48-2.64 and 1.86-2.01%Body weight day-1 for LL and HL, respectively; P > 0.05). The best growth, feed efficiency and protein productive value were observed in the groups fed 5 or 20 g kg-1 glutamate supplementation at both lipid levels, with significant differences for LL diet (P < 0.05). A better feed efficiency was achieved with the HL diet (14.6-27.5% vs. 2.5-19.2% for LL diet). There were no significant differences in the proximate composition of carcass (animal excluding the digestive gland). However, a substantial amount of lipids accumulated in the digestive gland, mainly triglycerides, was detected as a consequence of higher lipid ingestion or glutamate supplementation. It was notable the lower percentages of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine in the digestive gland of animals with best growth. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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