La Alberca de Záncara, Spain
La Alberca de Záncara, Spain
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Claret A.,IRTA Food Technology | Guerrero L.,IRTA Food Technology | Gines R.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Grau A.,Limia Laboratorio Of Investigaciones Marinas Y Acuicultura | And 4 more authors.
Appetite | Year: 2014

Aquaculture is a food-producing activity, alternative to traditional extractive fishing, which still acts as a reference for most consumers. The main objective of the present paper was to study which consumer beliefs, regarding farmed versus wild fish, hinder the potential development of the aquaculture sector. To achieve this purpose the study was organized into two complementary steps: a qualitative approach (focus groups) aimed at assessing consumer perception about wild and farmed fish and to identify the salient beliefs that differentiate them; and a quantitative approach (survey by means of a questionnaire) to validate the results obtained in the focus group discussions over a representative sample of participants (n = 919). Results showed that participants perceive clear differences between farmed and wild fish. Although no significant differences between both kinds of fish were detected on safety, in general farmed fish was perceived to be less affected by marine pollution, heavy metals and parasites. In the contrary, wild fish was considered to have healthier feeding, to contain fewer antibiotics and to be fresher, healthier, less handled and more natural. Beliefs related to quality were in favour of wild fish, while those related to availability and price were in favour of farmed fish. Significant differences were observed in the perception of both kinds of fish depending on the consumers' objective knowledge about fish, on the level of education, age and gender and on the three segments of consumers identified: "Traditional/Conservative", "Connoisseur", "Open to aquaculture". The results provided could play an important role when planning and designing efficient marketing strategies for promoting farmed fish by adapting the information provided to the perception of each segment of consumers identified by the present study. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Martinez-Fernandez D.,IMIDA | Walker D.J.,IMIDA | Romero P.,IMIDA | Martinez-Ballesta M.C.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Correal E.,IMIDA
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science | Year: 2012

Abstract Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) C.H. Stirton (Fabaceae) is a biennial-perennial species, which grows throughout the Mediterranean basin and Macaronesia. It is cultivated to provide livestock fodder and shows promise as a source of furanocoumarins. This is the first report on its physiological and growth responses to water deprivation. We assessed these in a pot assay, in the field and in hydroponic culture, using two populations from southern Spain and two from the Canary Islands. Proline accumulation was much lower in the field than for pot-grown plants, supporting recent indications that it is phytotoxic under combined drought and heat stress. In hydroponic culture, imposition of water stress by poly(ethylene glycol) increased the root/shoot ratio and decreased the root hydraulic conductivity. Overall, the results show B. bituminosa to be a species with high constitutive resistance to soil water deficit. For example, leaf turgor did not diminish, demonstrating its capacity for osmotic adjustment, and the specific leaf area in field conditions was similar to that of other species adapted to seasonal drought. Notwithstanding, the two Canarian populations (which complete their life cycles under very different conditions) maintained better their relative water content and water potential to avoid internal stress. Famara (Lanzarote, Canary Islands) is the most appropriate as a breeding line, which can maintain its shoot biomass under drought. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Gago J.,University of Vigo | Perez-Tornero O.,IMIDA | Landin M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Burgos L.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Gallego P.P.,University of Vigo
Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2011

Plant tissue growth can be regulated and controlled via culture media composition. A number of different laborious and time-consuming approaches have been used to attempt development of optimized media for a wide range of species and applications. However, plant tissue culture is a very complex task, and the identification of the influences of process factors such as mineral nutrients or plant growth regulators on a wide spectrum of growth responses cannot always well comprehended.This study employs a new approach, data mining, to uncover and integrate knowledge hidden in multiple data from plant tissue culture media formulations using apricot micropropagation databases as an example. Neurofuzzy logic technology made it possible to identify relationships among several factors (cultivars, mineral nutrients and plant growth regulators) and growth parameters (shoots number, shoots length and productivity), extracting biologically useful information from each database and combining them to create a model. The IF-THEN rule sets generated by neurofuzzy logic were completely in agreement with previous findings based on statistical analysis, but advantageously generated understandable and reusable knowledge that can be applied in future plant tissue culture media optimization. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.

Meseguer-Olmo L.,University of Murcia | Aznar-Cervantes S.,IMIDA | Mazon P.,University Miguel Hernández | De Aza P.N.,University Miguel Hernández
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine | Year: 2012

This work describes the evaluation of three ceramic materials as potential osteogenic substrate for bone tissue engineering.The capacity of adult humanmesenchymal stem cells cultured under experimental conditions known to adhere, proliferate and differentiate into osteoblasts was studied. Two types of culture medium: growth medium and osteogenic medium were evaluated. The materials were pure α-tricalciumphosphate and also αTCPdoped with either 1.5 or 3 wt% of dicalcium silicate. The results showed that the hMSCs cultured adhered, spread, proliferated and produced mineralized extracellular matrix on all the ceramics studied. They showed an osteoblastic phenotype, especially in the αTCP doped with 1.5 wt% C2S, indicating osteoblastic differentiation as a result of the increased concentration of silicon in solid solution in TCP. Ceramics evaluated in this work are bioactive, cytocompatible and capable of promoting the differentiation of hMSCs into osteoblast. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Evers J.B.,Wageningen University | Vos J.,Wageningen University | Yin X.,Wageningen University | Romero P.,IMIDA | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2010

Intimate relationships exist between form and function of plants, determining many processes governing their growth and development. However, in most crop simulation models that have been created to simulate plant growth and, for example, predict biomass production, plant structure has been neglected. In this study, a detailed simulation model of growth and development of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) is presented, which integrates degree of tillering and canopy architecture with organ-level light interception, photosynthesis, and dry-matter partitioning. An existing spatially explicit 3D architectural model of wheat development was extended with routines for organ-level microclimate, photosynthesis, assimilate distribution within the plant structure according to organ demands, and organ growth and development. Outgrowth of tiller buds was made dependent on the ratio between assimilate supply and demand of the plants. Organ-level photosynthesis, biomass production, and bud outgrowth were simulated satisfactorily. However, to improve crop simulation results more efforts are needed mechanistically to model other major plant physiological processes such as nitrogen uptake and distribution, tiller death, and leaf senescence. Nevertheless, the work presented here is a significant step forwards towards a mechanistic functional-structural plant model, which integrates plant architecture with key plant processes. © 2010 The Author.

Hernandez A.,IMIDA | Garcia Garcia B.,IMIDA | Jordan M.J.,IMIDA | Hernandez M.D.,IMIDA
Aquaculture | Year: 2014

This study focused on the effects of the dose of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis) on the quality of gilthead seabream. A control diet (basal diet) and four experimental diets (R600, R1200, R1800 and R2400) with 600, 1200, 1800 and 2400mgkg-1 of rosemary extract were administered, respectively. The fish were sacrificed and stored on ice at 4°C for 0, 7, 14 and 21days. Physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory tests were conducted at each sampling point to determine the degree of deterioration suffered by the gilthead seabream. The differences in water-holding capacity (WHC) and the trends in TBARS, TVBN and TMA observed suggest better preservation with the 600mgkg-1 dose. In addition, the Quality Index showed greater freshness in fish fed diets containing rosemary extract, regardless of the dose; shelf-life also increased by one day with all tested doses, as compared to the control group. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Garcia J.G.,IMIDA | Garcia B.G.,IMIDA
Aquaculture International | Year: 2011

The interest in diversifying aquacultural production with new species is evident, preferably with species with a high commercial value and whose consumption is not geographically limited. In this sense, octopus would be a good choice. The present work, therefore, presents an economic-financial analysis of the commercial viability of octopus ongrowing in the Mediterranean, paying special attention to the one- or two-cycle approach. Viability-profitability equations are developed for analysing economic parameters associated with production. To estimate the investment, an offshore ongrowing installation was designed comprising 150 cages containing 30,000 individuals. Growth was estimated for the two strategies: (A) Two consecutive cycles per year (2CY), each lasting 3.5 months from October to June. Initial weight was 0.7 kg, and the mean final weight was 2.7 kg. (B) One growth cycle per year (1CY) beginning in November or December and finishing in April or May, starting with the same weight individuals (0.7 kg) and giving individuals with a final weight of 3.65 kg. The highest costs, the most important from an economic point of view, are feed (38.57 and 40.03%, respectively), fixed assets (25.26 and 17.47%, respectively), juveniles (16.65 and 23.02%, respectively), and in fourth place salaries (14.34 and 15.60%, respectively). The equations obtained for the variables NPV (Net Present Value) and IRR (Internal Ratio of Return) are the following: 1 cycle per year (1CY), NPV = -489,088 - 1.45 K - 1,439,823 C F - 1,477,890 C J - 1,460,627 C O + 1,432,386 SP, IRR = 0.1328 - 7.82 × 10 -8 K - 0.0416 C F - 0.0437 C J - 0.0427 C O + 0.0412 SP. 2 cycles per year (2CY), NPV = -404,431 - 1.46 K - 2,118,410 C F - 2,121,221 C J - 2,144,755 C O + 2,129,223 SP, and IRR = 0.0952 - 6.95 × 10 -8K - 0.0586 C F - 0.0588 C J - 0.0588 C O + 0.0613 SP. The NPV and IRR values estimated with the econometric equations for each option using the initial variables confirm that 1CY has a higher NPV (3,013,569 €) and IRR (12.27%) than 2CY, with an NPV of 2,396,708 € and IRR of 10.39%. In both cases, octopus ongrowing is economically viable, although 1CY is the most favourable system. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Hellin P.,IMIDA | Manso A.,IMIDA | Flores P.,IMIDA | Fenoll J.,IMIDA
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The evolution of aroma and phenolic compounds was studied during ripening of Vitis vinifera cv. 'Superior Seedless' grapes in two consecutive years. The major free detected compounds were citral, geraniol, and benzyl alcohol whereas geraniol, citral, nerol, citronellol, dienediol I, linalol oxide I, linalol oxide II, benzyl alcohol, and 2-phenylethanol were identified in the glycosidically bound fraction. Concentrations of the main free terpene alcohols responsible for 'Superior Seedless' aroma decreased during grape development, and bound compounds became predominant at grape maturity. Calculation of odor activity values showed that geraniol was the most active odorant followed to a lesser extent by citral and nerol. With regard to phenolic compound evolution, flavan-3-ols and flavonols were maximal at veraison and decreased throughout the ripening, stilbenes content decreased from the first stage, and total phenolics increased to show a maximum in the ripe grapes. At ripening, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and catechin were the main compounds detected in 'Superior Seedless'. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Navarro J.M.,IMIDA | Botia P.,IMIDA | Perez-Perez J.G.,IMIDA
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

The irrigation necessities for grapefruit production are very high. Due to the scarcity of water resources, growers use deficit irrigation (DI) - which could affect the fruit quality. Different DI strategies were studied: Control (irrigated at 100% ETc) and T1, T2 and T3 (50% ETc at phases I, II and III of fruit growth, respectively). Strategy T1 only delayed external maturation depending on the duration of the water stress. High water stress in T2 delayed fruit maturation, increased acidity and reduced the sugar concentration. Under T2, trees suffering moderate water stress showed increased flavonoid and phenolic contents but decreased lycopene levels. External maturation was delayed in T3 when severe stress occurred during the first part of phase III. Strategy T3 advanced internal ripening when moderate water stress occurred during the first 40 days of phase III, increasing sugar accumulation, promoted by the high acidity of the fruits. Moderate water stress also increased β-carotene, flavonoids and phenolics levels. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Perez-Perez J.G.,IMIDA | Dodd I.C.,Lancaster University
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2015

Previous studies with partial rootzone drying (PRD) irrigation demonstrated that alternating the wet and dry parts of the rootzone (PRD-Alternated) increased leaf xylem ABA concentration ([X-ABA]leaf) compared with maintaining the same wet and dry parts of the rootzone (PRD-Fixed). To determine the relative contributions of different parts of the rootzone to this ABA signal, [X-ABA]leaf of potted, split-root tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants was modelled by quantifying the proportional water uptake from different soil compartments, and [X-ABA]leaf responses to the entire pot soil-water content (θpot). Continuously measuring soil-moisture depletion by, or sap fluxes from, different parts of the root system revealed that water uptake rapidly declined (within hours) after withholding water from part of the rootzone, but was rapidly restored (within minutes) upon re-watering. Two hours after re-watering part of the rootzone, [X-ABA]leaf was equally well predicted according to θpot alone and by accounting for the proportional water uptake from different parts of the rootzone. Six hours after re-watering part of the rootzone, water uptake by roots in drying soil was minimal and, instead, occurred mainly from the newly irrigated part of the rootzone, thus [X-ABA]leaf was best predicted by accounting for the proportional water uptake from different parts of the rootzone. Contrary to previous results, alternating the wet and dry parts of the rootzone did not enhance [X-ABA]leaf compared with PRD-Fixed irrigation. Further work is required to establish whether altered root-to-shoot ABA signalling contributes to the improved yields of crops grown with alternate, rather than fixed, PRD. © 2015 © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

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