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Murcia, Spain

Lopez-Minguez J.,University of Murcia | Colodro-Conde L.,IMIB Arrixaca | Colodro-Conde L.,University of Murcia | Colodro-Conde L.,QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Chronobiology International | Year: 2016

At present, the measurement of circadian system status under free-living conditions by the use of sensors is a relatively new technique. The data obtained using these methods are influenced by strong environmental masking factors and artifacts that can affect its recording. Therefore, the use of integrative variables such as TAP, a measure that includes temperature, activity and position that reduces these drawbacks and the number of parameters obtained is necessary. However, the relative genetic contribution to this circadian marker is unknown. The aim of our study was to ascertain the relative importance of genetic influences in TAP, and for each of its components using classical twin models. The study was performed in 53 pairs of female twins [28 monozygotic (MZ) and 25 dizygotic (DZ)] with mean age 52 ± 6 years. Circadian patterns were studied by analyzing temperature, body position and activity for 1 week every 1 min with “Circadianware®.”. Genetic influences affecting the variability of each of the measurements were estimated by comparing the observed data in twin pairs. MZ twins showed higher intrapair correlations than DZ twins for most of the parameters. Genetic factors (broad sense heritability) were responsible for about 40–72% of TAP variance in parameters such as mesor, acrophase, amplitude, Rayleigh test, percentage of rhythmicity and circadian function index. We found more homogeneous heritability estimates of the circadian system when using an integrative technique such as TAP than with individual variables alone, suggesting that this measurement can be more reliable and less subject to environmental artifacts. © 2016 Taylor & Francis

Navarro-Mateu F.,University of Murcia | Navarro-Mateu F.,CIBER ISCIII | Tormo M.J.,IMIB Arrixaca | Tormo M.J.,CIBER ISCIII | And 17 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: To describe the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and age of onset distribution of DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) disorders and to explore the association between socio-demographic variables and economic stressors with mental disorders during the economic crisis in the general population of Murcia (Spain). Methods and Findings: The PEGASUS-Murcia Project is a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey of a representative sample of non-institutionalized adults in Murcia administered between June 2010 and May 2012. DSM-IV disorders were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0). Main outcome measures were lifetime and 12-month prevalence of Anxiety, Mood, Impulse and Substance Disorders, Severity and Age of Onset. Sociodemographic variables and stressful economic life events during the preceding 12 months were entered as independent variables in a logistic regression analysis. A total of 2,621 participants (67.4% response rate) were interviewed, 54.5%female, mean age 48.6 years. Twelve-month prevalence (95%CI) of disorders: anxiety 9.7% (7.6-12.2), mood 6.6% (5.5-8.1), impulse 0.3% (0.1-1.2) and substance use 1.0% (0.4-2.4) disorders. Lifetime prevalence: anxiety 15.0% (12.3-18.1), mood 15.6% (13.5-18.1), impulse 2.4% (1.4-4.0) and substance use 8.3% (6.2-11.0) disorders. Severity among 12-month cases: serious 29.2% (20.8-39.4), moderate 35.6% (24.0-49.1) and mild severity 35.2% (29.5-41.5). Women were 3.7 and 2.5 times more likely than men to suffer 12-month anxiety and mood disorders, respectively. Substance use was more frequent among men. Younger age and lower income were associated with higher prevalence. Respondents exposed to multiple and recent economic stressors had the highest risk of anxiety disorders. Conclusions: Mental disorders in the adult population of Murcia during the economic crisis were more prevalent and serious than those in previous estimates for Spain. Prevalence was strongly associated with exposure to stressors related to the economic crisis. © 2015 Navarro-Mateu et al.

Slade T.,University of New South Wales | Chiu W.-T.,Harvard University | Glantz M.,U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse | Kessler R.C.,Harvard University | And 11 more authors.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2016

Background: The current study sought to examine the diagnostic overlap in DSM-IV and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) and determine the clinical correlates of changing diagnostic status across the 2 classification systems. Methods: DSM-IV and DSM-5 definitions of AUD were compared using cross-national community survey data in 9 low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Participants were 31,367 respondents to surveys in the World Health Organization's World Mental Health Survey Initiative. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0, was used to derive DSM-IV and DSM-5 lifetime diagnoses of AUD. Clinical characteristics, also assessed in the surveys, included lifetime DSM-IV anxiety; mood and drug use disorders; lifetime suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt; general functional impairment; and psychological distress. Results: Compared with DSM-IV AUD (12.3%, SE = 0.3%), the DSM-5 definition yielded slightly lower prevalence estimates (10.8%, SE = 0.2%). Almost one-third (n = 802) of all DSM-IV abuse cases switched to subthreshold according to DSM-5 and one-quarter (n = 467) of all DSM-IV diagnostic orphans switched to mild AUD according to DSM-5. New cases of DSM-5 AUD were largely similar to those who maintained their AUD across both classifications. Similarly, new DSM-5 noncases were similar to those who were subthreshold across both classifications. The exception to this was with regard to the prevalence of any lifetime drug use disorder. Conclusions: In this large cross-national community sample, the prevalence of DSM-5 lifetime AUD was only slightly lower than the prevalence of DSM-IV lifetime AUD. Nonetheless, there was considerable diagnostic switching, with a large number of people inconsistently identified across the 2 DSM classifications. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism

Yokoyama Y.,Osaka City University | Jelenkovic A.,University of Helsinki | Jelenkovic A.,University of the Basque Country | Sund R.,University of Helsinki | And 79 more authors.
Twin Research and Human Genetics | Year: 2016

We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI. © The Author(s) 2016.

Silventoinen K.,University of Helsinki | Silventoinen K.,Osaka University | Jelenkovic A.,University of Helsinki | Jelenkovic A.,University of the Basque Country | And 143 more authors.
Twin Research and Human Genetics | Year: 2015

For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes. Copyright © 2015 The Author(s).

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