Murcia, Spain
Murcia, Spain

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Thornicroft G.,King's College London | Chatterji S.,World Health Organization | Evans-Lacko S.,King's College London | Gruber M.,Harvard University | And 27 more authors.
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2017

Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Aims To examine the: (a) 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV MDD; (b) proportion aware that they have a problem needing treatment and who want care; (c) proportion of the latter receiving treatment; and (d) proportion of such treatment meeting minimal standards. Method Representative community household surveys from 21 countries as part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Results Of 51 547 respondents, 4.6% met 12-month criteria for DSM-IV MDD and of these 56.7% reported needing treatment. Among those who recognised their need for treatment, most (71.1%) made at least one visit to a service provider. Among those who received treatment, only 41.0% received treatment that met minimal standards. This resulted in only 16.5% of all individuals with 12-month MDD receiving minimally adequate treatment. Conclusions Only a minority of participants with MDD received minimally adequate treatment: 1 in 5 people in high-income and 1 in 27 in low-/lower-middle-income countries. Scaling up care for MDD requires fundamental transformations in community education and outreach, supply of treatment and quality of services. Declaration of interest In the past 3 years, R.C.K. received support for his epidemiological studies from Sanofi Aventis, was a consultant for Johnson & Johnson Wellness and Prevention and served on an advisory board for the Johnson & Johnson Services Inc. Lake Nona Life Project. R.C.K. is a co-owner of DataStat Inc., a market research firm that carries out healthcare research. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.


Jelenkovic A.,University of Helsinki | Jelenkovic A.,University of the Basque Country | Yokoyama Y.,Osaka City University | Sund R.,University of Helsinki | And 148 more authors.
Twin Research and Human Genetics | Year: 2015

A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes. © The Author(s) 2015.


Silventoinen K.,University of Helsinki | Silventoinen K.,Osaka University | Jelenkovic A.,University of Helsinki | Jelenkovic A.,University of the Basque Country | And 142 more authors.
Twin Research and Human Genetics | Year: 2015

For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes. Copyright © 2015 The Author(s).


Yokoyama Y.,Osaka City University | Jelenkovic A.,University of Helsinki | Jelenkovic A.,University of the Basque Country | Sund R.,University of Helsinki | And 79 more authors.
Twin Research and Human Genetics | Year: 2016

We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI. © The Author(s) 2016.


Navarro-Mateu F.,University of Murcia | Navarro-Mateu F.,CIBER ISCIII | Tormo M.J.,IMIB Arrixaca | Tormo M.J.,CIBER ISCIII | And 17 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: To describe the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and age of onset distribution of DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) disorders and to explore the association between socio-demographic variables and economic stressors with mental disorders during the economic crisis in the general population of Murcia (Spain). Methods and Findings: The PEGASUS-Murcia Project is a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey of a representative sample of non-institutionalized adults in Murcia administered between June 2010 and May 2012. DSM-IV disorders were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0). Main outcome measures were lifetime and 12-month prevalence of Anxiety, Mood, Impulse and Substance Disorders, Severity and Age of Onset. Sociodemographic variables and stressful economic life events during the preceding 12 months were entered as independent variables in a logistic regression analysis. A total of 2,621 participants (67.4% response rate) were interviewed, 54.5%female, mean age 48.6 years. Twelve-month prevalence (95%CI) of disorders: anxiety 9.7% (7.6-12.2), mood 6.6% (5.5-8.1), impulse 0.3% (0.1-1.2) and substance use 1.0% (0.4-2.4) disorders. Lifetime prevalence: anxiety 15.0% (12.3-18.1), mood 15.6% (13.5-18.1), impulse 2.4% (1.4-4.0) and substance use 8.3% (6.2-11.0) disorders. Severity among 12-month cases: serious 29.2% (20.8-39.4), moderate 35.6% (24.0-49.1) and mild severity 35.2% (29.5-41.5). Women were 3.7 and 2.5 times more likely than men to suffer 12-month anxiety and mood disorders, respectively. Substance use was more frequent among men. Younger age and lower income were associated with higher prevalence. Respondents exposed to multiple and recent economic stressors had the highest risk of anxiety disorders. Conclusions: Mental disorders in the adult population of Murcia during the economic crisis were more prevalent and serious than those in previous estimates for Spain. Prevalence was strongly associated with exposure to stressors related to the economic crisis. © 2015 Navarro-Mateu et al.


PubMed | CIBER ISCIII, University Pompeu Fabra, IMIB Arrixaca, Sociedad Espanola de Patologia Digestiva and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

To describe the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and age of onset distribution of DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) disorders and to explore the association between socio-demographic variables and economic stressors with mental disorders during the economic crisis in the general population of Murcia (Spain).The PEGASUS-Murcia Project is a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey of a representative sample of non-institutionalized adults in Murcia administered between June 2010 and May 2012. DSM-IV disorders were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0). Main outcome measures were lifetime and 12-month prevalence of Anxiety, Mood, Impulse and Substance Disorders, Severity and Age of Onset. Sociodemographic variables and stressful economic life events during the preceding 12 months were entered as independent variables in a logistic regression analysis. A total of 2,621 participants (67.4% response rate) were interviewed, 54.5% female, mean age 48.6 years. Twelve-month prevalence (95%CI) of disorders: anxiety 9.7% (7.6-12.2), mood 6.6% (5.5-8.1), impulse 0.3% (0.1-1.2) and substance use 1.0% (0.4-2.4) disorders. Lifetime prevalence: anxiety 15.0% (12.3-18.1), mood 15.6% (13.5-18.1), impulse 2.4% (1.4-4.0) and substance use 8.3% (6.2-11.0) disorders. Severity among 12-month cases: serious 29.2% (20.8-39.4), moderate 35.6% (24.0-49.1) and mild severity 35.2% (29.5-41.5). Women were 3.7 and 2.5 times more likely than men to suffer 12-month anxiety and mood disorders, respectively. Substance use was more frequent among men. Younger age and lower income were associated with higher prevalence. Respondents exposed to multiple and recent economic stressors had the highest risk of anxiety disorders.Mental disorders in the adult population of Murcia during the economic crisis were more prevalent and serious than those in previous estimates for Spain. Prevalence was strongly associated with exposure to stressors related to the economic crisis.


PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, Karabük University, HealthTwiSt GmbH, University of the Basque Country and 42 more.
Type: | Journal: eLife | Year: 2016

Human height variation is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but it remains unclear whether their influences differ across birth-year cohorts. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts including 143,390 complete twin pairs born 1886-1994. Although genetic variance showed a generally increasing trend across the birth-year cohorts, heritability estimates (0.69-0.84 in men and 0.53-0.78 in women) did not present any clear pattern of secular changes. Comparing geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia), total height variance was greatest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but no clear pattern in the heritability estimates across the birth-year cohorts emerged. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that heritability of height is lower in populations with low living standards than in affluent populations, nor that heritability of height will increase within a population as living standards improve.


PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, HealthTwiSt GmbH, University of the Basque Country, Semmelweis University and 52 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Twin research and human genetics : the official journal of the International Society for Twin Studies | Year: 2015

For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.

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