Ray M.,Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University |
Ray A.,Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University |
Dash S.,Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University |
Mishra A.,Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University |
And 3 more authors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2017
Fungal diseases in commercially important plants results in a significant reduction in both quality and yield, often leading to the loss of an entire plant. In order to minimize the losses, it is essential to detect and identify the pathogens at an early stage. Early detection and accurate identification of pathogens can control the spread of infection. The present article provides a comprehensive overview of conventional methods, current trends and advances in fungal pathogen detection with an emphasis on biosensors. Traditional techniques are the “gold standard” in fungal detection which relies on symptoms, culture-based, morphological observation and biochemical identifications. In recent times, with the advancement of biotechnology, molecular and immunological approaches have revolutionized fungal disease detection. But the drawback lies in the fact that these methods require specific and expensive equipments. Thus, there is an urgent need for rapid, reliable, sensitive, cost effective and easy to use diagnostic methods for fungal pathogen detection. Biosensors would become a promising and attractive alternative, but they still have to be subjected to some modifications, improvements and proper validation for on-field use. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Pratheek B.M.,National Institute of Science Education and Research |
Saha S.,National Institute of Science Education and Research |
Maiti P.K.,Imgenex India Pvt. Ltd |
Chattopadhyay S.,Institute of Life science |
Chattopadhyay S.,National Institute of Science Education and Research
Indian Journal of Virology | Year: 2013
The mammalian host immune system has wide array of defence mechanisms against viral infections. Depending on host immunity and the extent of viral persistence, either the host immune cells might clear/restrict the viral load and disease progression or the virus might evade host immunity by down regulating host immune effector response(s). Viral antigen processing and presentation in the host cells through major histocompatibility complex (MHC) elicit subsequent anti-viral effector T cell response(s). However, modulation of such response(s) might generate one of the important viral immune evasion strategies. Viral peptides are mostly generated by proteolytic cleavage in the cytosol of the infected host cells. CD8+ T lymphocytes play critical role in the detection of viral infection by recognizing these peptides displayed at the plasma membrane by MHC-I molecules. The present review summarises the current knowledge on the regulation of mammalian host innate and adaptive immune components, which are operative in defence mechanisms against viral infections and the variety of strategies that viruses have evolved to escape host cell immunity. The understanding of viral immune evasion strategies is important for designing anti-viral immunotherapies. © 2013 Indian Virological Society.
PubMed | Institute of Life science, Imgenex India Pvt. Ltd. and National Institute of Science Education and Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives of virology | Year: 2015
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has reemerged recently as an important pathogen, causing several large epidemics worldwide. This necessitates the development of better reagents to understand its biology and to establish effective and safe control measures. The present study describes the development and characterization of polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against synthetic peptides of CHIKV non-structural proteins (nsPs; nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4). The reactivity of these pAbs was demonstrated by ELISA and Western blot. Additionally, in vitro infection studies in a mammalian system confirmed that these pAbs are highly sensitive and specific for CHIKV nsPs, as these proteins were detected very early during viral replication. Homology analysis of the selected epitope sequences revealed that they are conserved among all of the CHIKV strains of different genotypes, while comparison with other alphavirus sequences showed that none of them are 100% identical to the epitope sequences (except Onyong-nyong and Igbo Ora viruses, which show 100% identity to the nsP4 epitope). Interestingly, two different forms of CHIKV nsP1 and three different forms of nsP3 were detected in Western blot analysis during infection; however, further experimental investigations are required to confirm their identity. Also, the use of these antibodies demonstrated faster and enhanced expression profiles of all CHIKV nsPs in 2006 Indian outbreak strains when compared to the CHIKV prototype strain, suggesting the epidemic potential of the 2006 isolate. Accordingly, it can be suggested that the pAbs reported in this study can be used as sensitive and specific tools for experimental investigations of CHIKV replication and infection.
Paital B.,Utkal University |
Paital B.,Banaras Hindu University |
Kumar S.,Institute of Life science |
Farmer R.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences |
And 2 more authors.
Interdisciplinary Sciences: Computational Life Sciences | Year: 2013
In the present study, we used computational methods to model crab and rat MnSOD using the crystal structure of MnSOD from Homo sapiens (PDB code: 1MSD) as template by comparative modeling approach. We performed molecular dynamics simulations to study dynamic behavior of the crab MnSOD. The modeled proteins were validated and subjected to molecular docking analyses. Molecular docking tool was used to elucidate a comparative binding mode of the crab and rat SOD with potent inhibitors of SOD such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), potassium cyanide (KCN) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The predicted valid structure of crab MnSOD did not show any interaction with KCN but close interaction with H2O2 and SDS. A possible inhibitory mechanism of SDS and H2O2 due to their interaction with the amino acids present in the active site of the MnSOD of the above two animals are elucidated. This allowed us to predict the binding modes of the proteins to elucidate probable mode of action and sites of interference. © 2013 International Association of Scientists in the Interdisciplinary Areas and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Jena S.,Utkal University |
Anand C.,Utkal University |
Chainy G.B.N.,Imgenex India Pvt. Ltd. |
Dandapat J.,Utkal University
Neurological Sciences | Year: 2012
The present study was carried out to elucidate the effectiveness of curcumin in ameliorating the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cerebral cortex and cerebellum of rat brain under 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)- induced hypothyroidism. Induction of hypothyroidism in adult rats by PTU resulted in augmentation of lipid peroxidation (LPx), an index of oxidative stress in cerebellum but not in cerebral cortex. Curcumin-supplementation to PTU-treated (hypothyroid) rats showed significant reduction in the level of LPx in both the regions of brain. The decreased translated products (SOD1 and SOD2) and the unchanged activity of SOD in cerebral cortex of PTUtreated rats were increased on supplementation of curcumin to the hypothyroid rats. Declined translated products of SOD1 and SOD2 in cerebellum of PTU-treated rats were alleviated on administration of curcumin to hypothyroid rats. On the other hand, the decreased activity of SOD in cerebellum of PTU-treated rats was further declined on administration of curcumin to the hypothyroid rats. Results of the present investigation indicate that curcumin differentially modulates the expression of superoxide dismutase in rat brain cortex and cerebellum under PTU-induced hypothyroidism. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Dash C.,Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology |
Mohapatra S.B.,Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology |
Maiti P.K.,Imgenex India Pvt. Ltd.
Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2016
Actinobacteria are promising source of a wide range of important enzymes, some of which are produced in industrial scale, with others yet to be harnessed. L-Asparaginase is used as an antineoplastic agent. The present work deals with the production and optimization of L-asparaginase from Actinomycetales bacterium BkSoiiA using submerged fermentation in M9 medium. Production optimization resulted in a modified M9 medium with yeast extract and fructose as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, at pH 8.0, incubated for 120 hr at 30 ± 2°C. The crude enzyme was purified to near homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation following dialysis, ion-exchange column chromatography, and finally gel filtration. The sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) revealed an apparent molecular weight of 57 kD. The enzyme was purified 95.06-fold and showed a final specific activity of 204.37 U/mg with 3.49% yield. The purified enzyme showed maximum activity at a pH 10.0 and was stable at pH 7.0 to 9.0. The enzyme was activated by Mn2+ and strongly inhibited by Ba2+. All these preliminary characterization suggests that the L-asparaginase from the source may be a tool useful to pharmaceutical industries after further research. Copyright © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Paital B.,Utkal University |
Chainy G.B.N.,Utkal University |
Chainy G.B.N.,IMGENEX India Pvt. Ltd.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - C Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2012
Mitochondrial respiration, activities of electron transport chain enzymes and formation of oxidative stress parameters were investigated in mitochondria isolated from gill tissue of mud crabs (Scylla serrata) as a function of salinity (10 ppt, 17 ppt and 35 ppt). Mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate was higher for succinate as substrate compared with those of glutamate, malate and pyruvate. Complex I and complex II mediated respirations were higher at low salinity (10 ppt) than high salinity (17 ppt and 35 ppt). Although activities of electron transport chain enzymes particularly complexes I (EC 22.214.171.124), II (EC 126.96.36.199) and II-III (EC 188.8.131.52) were elevated linearly in response to salinity treatment, activity of complex V (ATPase, EC 184.108.40.206) was decreased at 35 ppt salinity. However, ATPase activity was higher at 17 ppt salinity in comparison to 10 ppt and 17 ppt salinity. Results of the experiment suggest that high salinity (35 ppt) causes hypoxic state in mitochondria of mud crabs. Hypoxic condition induced by high salinity was accompanied with increased hydrogen peroxide production resulting oxidative stress in mitochondria of crabs. A possible mechanism of hypoxia-induced reactive oxygen species generation and OS due to salinity stress in the crabs is discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Imgenex India Pvt. Ltd and Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University
Type: | Journal: Biosensors & bioelectronics | Year: 2016
Fungal diseases in commercially important plants results in a significant reduction in both quality and yield, often leading to the loss of an entire plant. In order to minimize the losses, it is essential to detect and identify the pathogens at an early stage. Early detection and accurate identification of pathogens can control the spread of infection. The present article provides a comprehensive overview of conventional methods, current trends and advances in fungal pathogen detection with an emphasis on biosensors. Traditional techniques are the gold standard in fungal detection which relies on symptoms, culture-based, morphological observation and biochemical identifications. In recent times, with the advancement of biotechnology, molecular and immunological approaches have revolutionized fungal disease detection. But the drawback lies in the fact that these methods require specific and expensive equipments. Thus, there is an urgent need for rapid, reliable, sensitive, cost effective and easy to use diagnostic methods for fungal pathogen detection. Biosensors would become a promising and attractive alternative, but they still have to be subjected to some modifications, improvements and proper validation for on-field use.
PubMed | National Institute of Technology Rourkela, IMGENEX India Pvt. Ltd., Chonbuk National University and KIIT University
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016
In the present paper, facile synthesis of Ag@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites is reported where zinc oxide is coated on biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using Andrographis paniculata and Aloe vera leaf extract. Structural features of as synthesized nanocomposites are characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, and FTIR. Morphology of the above core-shell nanocomposites is investigated by electron microscopy. As synthesized nanocomposite material has shown antimicrobial activity against Candida krusei, which is an opportunistic pathogen known to cause candidemia. The possible mode of activity of the above material has been studied by in-vitro molecular techniques. Our investigations have shown that surface coating of biogenic silver nanoparticles by zinc oxide has increased its antimicrobial efficiency against Candida krusei, while decreasing its toxicity towards A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell lines.
PubMed | National Institute of Technology Rourkela, Cytometry Solutions Pvt Ltd and Imgenex India Pvt Ltd
Type: | Journal: Environmental toxicology and pharmacology | Year: 2016
In this study, we examined potential adverse health effect of particulate matter (PM) collected from industrial areas of Rourkela, Odisha, India. Results indicate that PM in these areas contains benzo[a]pyrene in addition to other unidentified molecules. Ames test revealed the above PM to be highly mutagenic. Further studies of PM in HaCaT cells suggest its DNA damaging potential which may lead to apoptosis. Generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species following PM exposure may be an early event in the PM induced apoptosis. In addition, the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP450), the key xenobiotic metabolism enzyme, was found to be increased following PM exposure indicating its role in PM induced toxicity. To confirm this, we used genetic and pharmacological inhibitors of CYP450 like CYP1B1 siRNA and Clotrimazole. Interestingly, we found that the use of these inhibitors significantly suppressed the PM induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells, which confirm the crucial role of CYP1B1 in the toxic manifestation of PM. For further analysis, blood samples were collected from the volunteer donor and analyzed for immunophenotypes and comet assay to survey any change in immune cells and DNA damage in blood cells respectively. The study was performed with 55 blood samples including 32 from industrial areas and 23 people from non-industrial zone of Rourkela city. Samples had a meanSD age of 356.2years (35 men and 20 women). Our investigation did not observe any significant alteration in lymphocytes (P=0.671), B cell (P=0.104), cytotoxic T cell (P=0.512), helper T cell (P=0.396), NK cell (P=0.675) and monocytes (P=0.170) of blood cells from these two groups. Taken together; this study first time reports the possible health hazards of PM from industrial areas of Odisha, India.