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Stuttgart, Germany

Khan F.M.A.,MBBS MC | Shamin M.O.,IMC | Chaudhry T.S.,MBBS MC
Medical Forum Monthly | Year: 2015

Objectives: To establish a probable relationship of serum total testosterone with hemoglobin under normal physiological conditions in Pakistani population. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi from September 2010 to September 2011. Material and Methods: 200 apparently healthy, non-smoker and adult males of age group 30-50 years were selected by convenient sampling. Early morning samples of serum total testosterone and hemoglobin were obtained by venipuncture after detailed medical history and thorough physical examination. All the tests were done on the same day and results were calculated. Results: The mean (± SD) total testosterone was 15.92 (± 6.32) nmol/L. The frequency of low serum total testosterone was 13.5%. The frequency of anemia was 4.0%. Hemoglobin and MCHC directly correlated with total testosterone (p < 0.05) while PCV, RBC count and MCH did not show significant correlation (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Low testosterone is prevalent in Pakistani apparently healthy males in the age group 30-50 years. Significant direct relationship of testosterone with hemoglobin showed that physiological variations in testosterone can modulate hemoglobin status in middle age apparently healthy sedentary Pakistani men. Source

Objective: To study the mean platelet volume (MPV) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) with special reference to duration of diabetes and glycaemic control (HbAlc) in type 2 diabetics (DM). Study Design: Case control study Place and Duration: This study was carried out at the Department of Medicine, Liaquat University Hospital Jamshoro, from March 2014 to December 2014. Materials and Methods: 100 subjects; comprising of 50 controls and 50 cases of DR were selected as per criteria and evaluated for study variables. Blood sample were collected in anticoagulant sterilized bottles for analysis of hematoanalyzer. Volunteers were requested to sign the informed consent proforma. Statistix 8.1 was used for data analysis. Pearson's correlation (r), student t test and Chi square were used for data analysis. p<0.05 was defined significant. Results: MPV values were found raised in DR subjects compared to controls i.e.; 11.7±3.2 flversus 9.12±2.1 respectively (p <0.0001). MPV was positively correlated with HbAlc (r=0.740, p-value= 0.0001) and duration of DM(r=0.510,p=0.0001). Conclusion: The present study reports raised mean platelet volume was diabetic retinopathy which was positively correlated with HbAlc and duration of diabetes. Source

Rathi R.,MMC | Memon I.A.,LUH | Kazi A.,IMC
Medical Forum Monthly | Year: 2015

Objective: To investigate the blood lipids, serum cholesterol and glycaemic control as risk factor for Diabetic retinopathy (DR). Study Design: Cross sectional study Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Muhammad Medical College Hospital Mirpurkhas and Consultant Clinics Hyderabad from March 2014 to January 2015. Materials and Methods: 100 cases of DR were selected for present study. Fundoscopy was performed by the physician followed by a Consultant ophthalmologist. Blood was collected from peripheral vein after a fasting state of 8-12 hours. Glycated hemoglobin Al (AlC) and lipids were evaluated by standard assays. Volunteers were requested to sign to informed consent profroma. Research topic was approved by ethics committee of institute. Statistix 8.1 for data analysis and P-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of 100 patients, 58 (58%) were male and 42 (42%) were female patients. Mean ± SD age in patients with and without DR was 49.5±8.5 and 46.3±5.1 years respectively. 21% frequency was noted for DR of any type. Age, male, AlC, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia and microalbuminuria proved positive correlated with DR. Correlation of DR was not found with VLDL, HDLc and triacylglycerols Conclusion: The present study reports hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and poor glycaemic control as risk factors for diabetic retinopathy. Source

Farooq M.S.,PMC | Shaheen B.,IMC | Asif M.,PMC | Malik A.,The University of Lahore
Medical Forum Monthly | Year: 2015

Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of subclinical hypothyroidism on lipid profile with special reference to total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Study Design: Analytic study Place and Duration Study: This study was carried out at the Punjab Institute of Nuclear Medicine (PINUM), Faisalabad and IMBB, university of Lahore from January 2011 to September 2011. (Eight months) Materials and Methods: 100 female patients of age ranges from 20-50 years having subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and 20 euthyroidsubject of same age and sex (control) were included in this study. Serum FT4, FT3, TSH, total cholesterol and triglyceride of subclinical hypothyroid patients and control group were determined. Result: In subclinical hypothyroid patients total cholesterol were significantly increased as compared to euthyroid group. Serum TSH and total cholesterol showed positive correlation. Serum triglyceride did not significantly increased in SCH. Conclusion: The total cholesterol level elevated in SCH. This increases the risk of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) in subclinical hypothyroid patients. Source

News Article
Site: http://phys.org/space-news/

CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope) is an observation instrument equipped with cutting-edge detectors and electronic technology to perform very high precision observations of extremely high-energy electrons, gamma-rays, protons and atomic nucleus, which have been difficult to perform to date, and also measure gamma-ray burst phenomena. Through the CALET observations, we are aiming at elucidating cosmic / universal mysteries including 1) origin and acceleration mechanism of high-energy cosmic rays, 2) diffusion mechanism of cosmic rays within the Galaxy, and 3) dark matter signature. CALET was transported to Kibo by the KOUNOTORI5 launched from the Tanegashima Space Center in August 2015 to be installed on the Kibo's Exposed Facility. After completing the initial verification of observation instruments, CALET is now under calibration and verification of detected data. In the early stage of the verification process, the TeV electrons (candidates) have already been observed as shown in the previous page. CALET will move to regular observation mode after data calibration and verification to perform high-precision observations for over two years. We will achieve our observation goals through statistical processing with fewer errors. The mission instrument will observe high-energy cosmic rays in space. CALET is installed on the Exposed Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module "Kibo" at the International Space Station (ISS). It is a joint research project of JAXA and Waseda University led by Professor Shoji Torii (Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University). Among the Japanese team, 22 research institutes such as Kanagawa University, Aoyama Gakuin University, and the Institute for Comic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, are also participating in this project. In addition, NASA and the Italian Space Agency (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, ASI) cooperated to develop CALET. NASA and American researchers provided us with technical support for the cosmic rays observation sensor technology, while ASI and Italian researchers assisted us with high-voltage power and cosmic rays observation sensor technology. Both of them will mutually cooperate in analyzing CALET observation data. The calorimeter that can detect positions of shower particles is installed on CALET. The calorimeter was developed under the cooperation of Japan, NASA and ASI by carrying out beam tests of a CALET proto-type model at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). By imaging the "shower particles" that are generated by cosmic rays within the calorimeter, high energy cosmic rays can be observed precisely. The calorimeter is an instrument to measure the energy of high-energy particles. When an electron or gamma-ray passes through a matter, electromagnetic interactions, such as bremsstrahlung and electron-positron pair creation, occurs successively and increases particles (cascade shower). The calorimeter is an instrument to determine energy of incoming particles by measuring energy loss of the shower particles. CALET is a three layer structure. The TASC, which lies at the bottom, adopts "lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystals" for a scintillator. It is the thickest scintillator as a cosmic ray observation instrument, and has the incomparable capability of precisely determining energy and identifying particle at high energies over 1 TeV. The cross section of the scintillating fibers used in the IMC in the middle layer is 1 square mm so that we can obtain sufficient information by read-out of each fiber data, which is necessary for determining the arrival direction and types of incoming cosmic rays. Therefore, CALET can explore the high-energy region as a whole calorimeter, which had been difficult to observe by a conventional method. Conventional research says that dark matter is highly likely the "weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP)" which was generated at the early universe. In theory, the WIMP creates already-known elementary particles (such as electron/positron pairs) through pair annihilation and decay, and the maximum energy of the created particles is limited to the mass energy of the WIMP. The WIMP's mass is expected to be more than several 100 GeV based on the past observation of electron/positron. Therefore, observation of electrons/positrons in the TeV region by CALET calorimeter is crucial for searching dark matter. CALET is the first instrument that can achieve the electron observations in such a high-energy region.

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