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Brétigny-sur-Orge, France

De Saint Maurice G.,Guillaume de Saint Maurice | Auroy Y.,IMASSA | Vincent C.,Saint Marys College | Amalberti R.,Haute Autorite de sante
Quality and Safety in Health Care | Year: 2010

Background: Safety rules continue growing rapidly, as if constraining human behaviour was the unique avenue for reaching ultimate safety. Safety rules are essential for a safe system, but their multiplication can have counterproductive effects. Objective: To monitor, in an anaesthesia ward, compliance with a process-oriented safety rule, and understand barriers and facilitators which help and hinder physicians from following guidelines. Methods: The rule stipulated that the day before surgery anaesthetists had to record in the patient's file the drugs to be used for the anaesthesia (induction, maintenance, airway control). Compliance was assessed before introduction of the rule, immediately after, at 6 months and at 12 months. All medical staff were blinded to the protocol. Results: 717 patient records were included. The results showed an initial compliance with policy, reaching 86% for some items (never 100%). Reduction began within 6 months and returned almost to initial levels within a year. One individual showed poor compliance throughout the study but even initially compliant doctors experienced a reduction. Compliance was higher for complex surgery but lower for unscheduled surgery and when job pressure was greater. Conclusions: Compliance eroded over time. A major trigger of erosion seemed to be lack of continued compliance by a senior member of staff. Rules and procedures constitute fragile safety barriers, and it may be better to forego introducing a new safety rule if it is not considered as a priority by staff and is therefore vulnerable to sacrifice in case of conflict with competitive demands. Source

Bourrilhon C.,IMASSA | Lepers R.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Philippe M.,IMASSA | Beers P.V.,IMASSA | And 6 more authors.
Hormone and Metabolic Research | Year: 2010

This study investigated effects of a high protein (PROT) versus a high carbohydrate (CHO) diet on performance and physiological responses during an ultraendurance climbing race at moderate altitude. On two different periods, in a randomised crossover design, ten climbers (30.0±0.9 years) participated in the race (duration 29h approximately, energy expenditure 43.6±1.2MJ•day1) and were fed either with the PROT (30% protein content) or the CHO diet (68% carbohydrate) each providing 16.74MJ. Mental performance was assessed by the Stroop test and we estimated maximal voluntary strength of quadriceps muscle. We quantified metabolic and hormonal circulating concentrations. Mental performance was unaffected after the two races, while muscular performance and body weight were decreased (both p<0.01) with no diet effects. Decreases were measured for IGF-I concentration and its binding protein IGFBP-3 (p<0.001), and increases for cortisol and norepinephrine (p<0.01) with no diet effects. Glucose concentration decreased (p<0.05) without diet effects, while amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, valine, and tyrosine) decreased in CHO group (p<0.001). Leptin concentration decreased (p<0.001) without diet effects, whereas total ghrelin increased in CHO group (p<0.01). Our results showed that a high PROT or high CHO intake during physical exertion at moderate altitude maintained mental performance, but did not limit muscle force reduction and body weight loss. There was decreased glucose availability, and hormonal responses indicated both catabolism and extreme energy deficiency induced by exercise with opposite responses of ghrelin and leptin. The ghrelin response was additionally indicative of macronutrient intake during the race. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart - New York. Source

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