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Castillo C.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Benedito J.L.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Pereira V.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Sotillo J.,University of Murcia | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences | Year: 2011

This study compared two grain processing methods that are widely used for beef cattle, grinding and steam pelleting, with respect to serum metabolic parameters: glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), serum urea nitrogen (SUN), total serum protein (TSP), albumin, L-lactate, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), y-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and amylase. Ten Belgian Blue bull calves were allotted randomly to each of two experimental groups: PF, fed pelleted concentrate, and GF, fed ground concentrate. During the 77-day study most parameters underwent significant variation in time, increasing only numerically serum values of total protein, albumin, AST and amylase, while serum glucose, NEFA and GGT decreased numerically. Statistically significant differences were found only between groups PF and GF for creatinine (higher in group PF, in relation with its greater average body weight) and urea nitrogen, which for unknown causes fluctuated in opposite directions in the two groups throughout most of the study and attributable to changes in ruminai protein digestion. Neither serum glucose nor L-lactate were affected by treatment of grains.

Robina A.,University of Extremadura | Viguera J.,Imasde Agroalimentaria | Perez-Palacios T.,University of Extremadura | Mayoral A.I.,University of Extremadura | And 3 more authors.
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2013

A total of 144 pigs were used to study the effects of sex (barrows or gilts) and terminal sire line (Iberian or three genetic lines of Duroc: Duroc 1, Duroc 2 and Duroc 3) on performance and carcass and meat quality traits. Gilts showed slightly lower average daily gain, shoulder weight and trimming losses, but slightly better primal cuts yields and higher loin weight, while there was no significant effect of sex on meat quality traits or on the fatty acid composition of lard and muscle. There were important differences in performance and in carcass and primal cuts quality traits between pure Iberian pigs and all Iberian × Duroc crossbreeds evaluated, partly due to the lower slaughter weights reached by the formers. The different sire lines showed differences in several traits; Duroc 1 group showed lower backfat thickness and ham and shoulder trimming losses, and higher primal cut yields than Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 groups. Intramuscular fat (IMF) content remained unaffected by crossbreeding, but meat color resulted more intense and redder in crosses from the Duroc 1 sire line. The accumulation of fatty acids in lard was not affected by Duroc sire line, while animals of the group Duroc 2 showed higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acid and lower of polyunsaturated ones in IMF. These results highlight the importance of considering not only performance, but also carcass and meat quality traits when deciding the Duroc sire line for crossbreeding in Iberian pig production.

Amerah A.M.,DuPont Company | Quiles A.,University of Murcia | Medel P.,Imasde Agroalimentaria | Sanchez J.,Imasde Agroalimentaria | And 2 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The aim of the present experiment was to examine the effect of pelleting temperature and a probiotic supplementation based on three Bacillus subtilis strains on growth performance and the immune function of broilers fed maize/soy-based diets. The experimental design was a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two levels of probiotic supplementation (without or with 1.5×105cfu/g feed) and three pelleting temperatures (75, 85 and 90°C). Each treatment was fed ad libitum to 8 pens of 22 male broilers, in both the starter (1-21 day) and the grower (22-42 day) phases. On day 21 and 42, 6 birds per treatment were randomly selected to measure blood immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin A (IgA), production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and duodenal secretory IgA. Data were analysed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the general linear model (GLM) procedure of statistical analysis software (SAS). During the starter phase (1-21 day), pelleting temperature had no effect (P>0.05) on broiler performance. However, probiotic supplementation tended to reduce feed intake (P=0.055) compared to unsupplemented diets with no effect (P>0.05) on weight gain or feed conversion. During the finisher phase (22-42 day) and over the entire period (1-42 day) pelleting temperature at 85°C reduced (P<0.05) weight gain compared to those fed diet pelleted at 75 or 90°C. Probiotic supplementation reduced (P<0.05) feed intake and improved (P<0.05) feed conversion. No interactions (P>0.05) were observed for any of the measured performance parameters during the overall period. There was no effect (P>0.05) of dietary treatments on the measured blood IgM, IgA and ROI. Probiotic supplementation and pelleting temperatures (85 and 90°C) increased (P<0.05) the concentration of secretory IgA in the duodenum on day 21. On day 42 an interaction (P<0.01) between probiotic and pelleting temperature was observed for the duodenal concentration of secretory IgA. In probiotic supplemented diets, pelleting temperature at 90°C reduced the concentration of secretory IgA compared to diets pelleted at 75 or 85°C. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that increased pelleting temperature and probiotic supplementation stimulate duodenal secretory IgA production during the starter phase (1-21 day). Furthermore, over the entire period (1-42 day), probiotic supplementation based on three Bacillus subtilis strains improved feed conversion ratio in broilers fed maize/soy diets, regardless of the pelleting temperature used. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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