IMARPE

Callao, Peru
Callao, Peru

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Joo R.,IMARPE | Joo R.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Salcedo O.,University of Lima | Gutierrez M.,University of Lima | And 2 more authors.
Fisheries Research | Year: 2015

Understanding the spatiotemporal behavior of fishermen at the fleet scale is key for defining effective strategies for fisheries management. Here we classify the spatial patterns exhibited by fishing trip trajectories in the world's largest monospecific fishery, the Peruvian anchovy fishery. Our goal is to identify spatial strategies and their possible changes over 2000-2009. The data comprise more than 350,000 fishing trips, recorded using a vessel monitoring system. On-board observers monitored a small fraction of those trips (>2000), providing data for inferring the type of activity (fishing, searching, and cruising) from the position records, for use in a state-space model. Each fishing trip was characterized by its duration, maximum distance to the coast, geographical extension, and time spent fishing, searching and cruising. Using clustering techniques, we identified four types of fishing trips, associated with differences in management among regions, fleet segments, and skippers' behavior. The methodology could be used to investigate fishing spatial strategies using VMS trajectories in other fisheries. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Joo R.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Bertrand A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Bouchon M.,IMARPE | Chaigneau A.,French National Center for Space Studies | And 8 more authors.
Progress in Oceanography | Year: 2014

A major goal in marine ecology is the understanding of the interactions between the dynamics of the different ecosystem components, from physics to top predators. While fishermen are among the main top predators at sea, almost none of the existing studies on ecology from physics to top predators contemplate fishermen as part of the system. The present work focuses on the coastal processes in the Northern Humboldt Current System, which encompasses both an intense climatic variability and the largest monospecific fishery of the world. From concomitant satellite, acoustic survey and Vessel Monitoring System data (∼90,000 fishing trips) for a ten-year period (2000-2009), we quantify the associations between the dynamics of the spatial behavior of fishermen, environmental conditions and anchovy (Engraulis ringens) biomass and spatial distribution. Using multivariate statistical analyses we show that environmental and anchovy conditions do significantly shape fishermen spatial behavior and present evidences that environmental fluctuations smoothed out along trophic levels. We propose a retrospective analysis of the study period in the light of the ecosystem scenarios evidenced and we finally discuss the potential use of fishermen spatial behavior as ecosystem indicator. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Freon P.,IRD Montpellier | Sueiro J.C.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Iriarte F.,IandA | Miro Evar O.F.,University Tumbes | And 3 more authors.
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries | Year: 2014

Peru is the top exporter of fishmeal and fish oil (FMFO) worldwide and is responsible for half and a third of global production, respectively. Landings of "anchoveta" (Engraulis ringens) are used nearly exclusively for FMFO production, despite a proactive national food policy aimed at favoring the direct human consumption of this inexpensive species. It may be surprising that in a country where malnutrition and caloric deficit constitute major issues, a low-priced and highly nutritious fish such as anchovy does not have stronger domestic demand as a food fish. Here, we review and assess eight potential politico-socio-economic processes that can explain this situation. The main explanation are dietary habits, the preference for broiler and the higher profit from anchovy sold as feed fish compared to its use as a food fish due to historically high FMFO prices, boosted by an increasing demand for aquaculture in a context of finite forage and trash fish resources. In addition, the recent introduction of an individual quota system has shifted bargaining power from processors to fishers, thereby increasing competition for the raw material. This competition results in an increase in anchovy prices offered by the feed fish industry due to its onshore processing overcapacity, which is detrimental to the food fish industry. In the end, although the dominant use of anchovy for fish feed is largely explained by integrating these market mechanisms and other minor ones, this use raises other issues, such as rent redistribution through public policies, employment, equitability and utility (low social costs), and resource management (threats to ecosystems or global change). Different policy scenarios are proposed in relation to these issues. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Lorrain A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Arguelles J.,IMARPE | Alegre A.,IMARPE | Bertrand A.,IMARPE | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Cephalopods play a major role in marine ecosystems, but knowledge of their feeding ecology is limited. In particular, intra- and inter-individual variations in their use of resources has not been adequatly explored, although there is growing evidence that individual organisms can vary considerably in the way they use their habitats and resources. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using δ 13C and δ 15N values of serially sampled gladius (an archival tissue), we examined high resolution variations in the trophic niche of five large (>60 cm mantle length) jumbo squids (Dosidicus gigas) that were collected off the coast of Peru. We report the first evidence of large inter-individual differences in jumbo squid foraging strategies with no systematic increase of trophic level with size. Overall, gladius δ 13C values indicated one or several migrations through the squid's lifetime (~8-9 months), during which δ 15N values also fluctuated (range: 1 to 5‰). One individual showed an unexpected terminal 4.6‰ δ 15N decrease (more than one trophic level), thus indicating a shift from higher- to lower-trophic level prey at that time. The data illustrate the high diversity of prey types and foraging histories of this species at the individual level. Conclusions/Significance: The isotopic signature of gladii proved to be a powerful tool to depict high resolution and ontogenic variations in individual foraging strategies of squids, thus complementing traditional information offered by stomach content analysis and stable isotopes on metabolically active tissues. The observed differences in life history strategies highlight the high degree of plasticity of the jumbo squid and its high potential to adapt to environmental changes. © 2011 Lorrain et al.


Passuni G.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Passuni G.,CNRS Chizé Center for Biological Studies | Barbraud C.,CNRS Chizé Center for Biological Studies | Chaigneau A.,IMARPE | And 11 more authors.
Ecology | Year: 2016

In fluctuating environments, matching breeding timing to periods of high resource availability is crucial for the fitness of many vertebrate species, and may have major consequences on population health. Yet, our understanding of the proximate environmental cues driving seasonal breeding is limited. This is particularly the case in marine ecosystems, where key environmental factors and prey abundance and availability are seldom quantified. The Northern Humboldt Current System ( NHCS ) is a highly productive, low- latitude ecosystem of moderate seasonality. In this ecosystem, three tropical seabird species (the Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, the Peruvian Booby Sula variegata, and the Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus ) live in sympatry and prey almost exclusively on anchovy, Engraulis ringens. From January 2003 to December 2012, we monitored 31 breeding sites along the Peruvian coast to investigate the breeding cycle of these species. We tested for relationships between breeding timing, oceanographic conditions, and prey availability using occupancy models. We found that all three seabird species exhibited seasonal breeding patterns, with marked interspecific differences. Whereas breeding mainly started during the austral winter/early spring and ended in summer/early fall, this pattern was stronger in boobies and pelicans than in cormorants. Breeding onset mainly occurred when upwelling was intense but ecosystem productivity was below its annual maxima, and when anchovy were less available and in poor physiological condition. Conversely, the abundance and availability of anchovy improved during chick rearing and peaked around the time of fledging. These results suggest that breeding timing is adjusted so that fledging may occur under optimal environmental conditions, rather than being constrained by nutritional requirements during egg laying. Adjusting breeding time so that fledglings meet optimal conditions at independence is unique compared with other upwelling ecosystems and could be explained by the relatively high abundances of anchovy occurring throughout the year in the NHCS. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.


Joo R.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Bertrand S.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Chaigneau A.,IMARPE | Chaigneau A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Niquen M.,IMARPE
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2011

The spatial behavior of numerous fishing fleets is nowadays well documented thanks to satellite Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS). Vessel positions are recorded on a frequent and regular basis which opens promising perspectives for improving fishing effort estimation and management. However, no specific information is provided on whether the vessel is fishing or not. To answer that question, existing works on VMS data usually apply simple criteria (e.g. threshold on speed). Those simple criteria generally focus in detecting true positives (a true fishing set detected as a fishing set); conversely, estimation errors are given no attention. For our case study, the Peruvian anchovy fishery, those criteria overestimate the total number of fishing sets by 182%. To overcome this problem an artificial neural network (ANN) approach is presented here. In order to set both the optimal parameterization and use " rules" for this ANN, we perform an extensive sensitivity analysis on the optimization of (1) the internal structure and training algorithm of the ANN and (2) the " rules" used for choosing both the relative size and the composition of the databases (DBs) used for training and inferring with the ANN. The " optimized" ANN greatly improves the estimates of the number and location of fishing events. For our case study, ANN reduces the total estimation error on the number of fishing sets to 1% (in average) and obtains 76% of true positives. This spatially explicit information on effort, provided with error estimation, should greatly reduce misleading interpretations of catch per unit effort and thus significantly improve the adaptive management of fisheries. While fitted on Peruvian anchovy fishery data, this type of neural network approach has wider potential and could be implemented in any fishery relying on both VMS and at-sea observer data. In order to increase the accuracy of the ANN results, we also suggest some criteria for improving sampling design by at-sea observers and VMS data. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Oerder V.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Colas F.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Echevin V.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Codron F.,Paris-Sorbonne University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans | Year: 2015

The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System (PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution, eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological productivity. © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Oerder V.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Colas F.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Echevin V.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Codron F.,Paris-Sorbonne University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans | Year: 2015

The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System (PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution, eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological productivity. © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Peraltilla S.,IMARPE | Bertrand S.,CRH Inc
Fisheries Research | Year: 2014

While speed of fish schools is critical information for parameterizing numerous ecosystem models and evaluating fishery management options, it is poorly documented. Here we present results of in situ measurements of the speed of Peruvian anchovy schools, a small pelagic species that sustain the world's largest mono-specific fishery. Instantaneous school speed was in average 0.6ms-1, authorizing theoretical maximum displacements of ~26kmday-1. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Pietri A.,Locean | Testor P.,Locean | Echevin V.,Locean | Chaigneau A.,Legos omp | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Physical Oceanography | Year: 2013

The upwelling system off southern Peru has been observed using an autonomous underwater vehicle (a Slocum glider) during October-November 2008. Nine cross-front sections have been carried out across an intense upwelling cell near 14°S. During almost two months, profiles of temperature, salinity, and fluorescence were collected at less than 1-km resolution, between the surface and 200-m depth. Estimates of alongshore absolute geostrophicvelocities were inferred from the density field and the glider drift between two surfacings. In the frontal region, salinity and biogeochemical fields displayed cross-shore submesoscale filamentary structures throughout the mission. Those features presented a width of 10-20 km, a vertical extent of ~150 m, and appeared to propagate toward the shore. They were steeper than isopycnals and kept an aspect ratio close to f/N, the inverse of the Prandtl ratio. These filamentary structures may be interpreted mainly as a manifestation ofsubmesoscale turbulence through stirring of the salinity gradients by the mesoscale eddy field. However, meandering of the front or cross-frontal wind-driven instabilities could also play a role in inducing vertical velocities. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.

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