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Tehran, Iran

The Imam Sadegh University or Imam Sadiq University is an Iranian university in Tehran, located off of Chamran Expressway and was headed by Mohammad-Reza Mahdavi Kani.Established in 1982, the goal of the university is to bridge the gap between Islamic researchs and modern studies, especially humanities. This university is also known as a conservative center which train political officials of Iran's Islamic state. The students have strong loyalty to the Islamic revolution and the ideals of Ayatollah Khomeini, who become accepted through a strict staging process and the ideological admissions.The university offers Ph.D. degrees in various fields such as political science, economics, Islamic jurisprudence, law and communications. It currently has 8 colleges in operation. Wikipedia.

Jassbi J.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Mohamadnejad F.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Nasrollahzadeh H.,Imam Sadiq University
Expert Systems with Applications

The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is a widely adopted performance management framework first introduced in the early 1990s. More recently, it has been proposed as the basic for a strategic management system. Strategy mapping is the most important task in building a Balanced Scorecard system. Strategy mapping is the process for visually making cause and effect relationships between all possible strategic objectives in an organization. The process for building and constructing a strategy map is a human centric activity which could be considered as the combination and integration of all knowledge and preferences of the managerial boards. From the view point of strategic decision making in an organization, the process for building a strategy map could be viewed in a general body of a unified group decision making context. If we see the strategy map, as a structural modeling framework for making the cause and effect relationships among the strategic objectives, it is possible to deploy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) as a framework for structural modeling approach subject to the problem. The DEMATEL method gathers collective knowledge to capture the causal relationships between strategic criteria. The model is especially practical and useful for visualizing the structure of complicated causal relationships with matrices or digraphs. Generally speaking, because in building any strategy map, the assigned preferences between the objectives are not crisp necessarily, and experts' domain knowledge could be extracted in a fuzzy environment, then the extended fuzzy DEMATEL is proposed to deal with the ambiguities inherent of such the judgments. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Moeinifar M.,University of Tehran | Ardebeli F.A.,Imam Sadiq University
Journal of Reproduction and Infertility

Lineage in the Islamic law is one of the most basic human rights each individual inherits from his family. When modern assisted reproductive technologies appeared in recent decades, the issue of lineage and the child's rights did not encounter serious challenges. But with the advent of these technologies, the issue of the child's lineage resulting from new technologies has become the center of attention. These technologies have a large share in the field of medicine. A new technique known as cloning has entered the realm of science and technology. Considering the possibility of the widespread use of this technique, the subject of cloned child's lineage and his/her rights would be one of the major issues related to this subject. In this paper, the authors have examined the various aspects of the subject and the opinions of theologians in this regard in order to present a best solution to this issue. In fact, the fundamental concern in this paper is to figure out the relationship between the cloned child, the cell donor, the egg donor and the owner of the uterus. In this paper, after considering the concepts of the parentage and identical twins' relationship would be explored and then a detailed analysis of the parental relationship and the Shiite jurisprudence scholars' opinion on these issues would be presented. Finally, the rights of cloned children would be taken into consideration. Source

Manzoor D.,Imam Sadiq University
Journal of Environmental Studies

An increase in energy prices will reduce environmental emissions via two channels. This policy will decrease the fossil fuel consumption and hence will cause emission reduction. On the other hand, the cost-push will encourage technology improvement for firms and households. These changes in fossil fuel demand and energy use technology will affect the emission level. It is estimated that phasing out fossil fuel subsidies by 2020, will cut the expected growth in carbondioxide emissions by 2 gigatons. Herein, Iran stands in 10 th grade by annual CO2 emission in the world and 1 st in the MENA. Along with G-20 leaders commitment to "rationalize and phase out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption", Iran is also taking a key step toward reforming energy subsidies and increasing the prices. In early 2010, a law outlining far-reaching subsidy reform was enacted in Iran and is started by December 2010. The subsidy reform law calls for gradual implementation of market-based energy pricing and the replacement of subsidies by targeted assistance to lower income groups. Policy makers expect that phasing out energy subsidies in Iran will reduce annual emissions. The policy includes huge increase in energy prices. Electricity, gasoline, kerosene, natural gas, gasoil and crude oil prices are going to increase. However, as the relative prices are going to change extremely in this policy, the economic theory estimates a substitution between energies. This will result in an increased consumption of relatively cheaper energy goods. In other words, we expect that the changes of production and consumption technology towards more consumption of electricity and gasoline which face minimum increase in prices. As the emission factor differs for every pollutant for each energy good, it may increase emission of some pollutants. We may call this effect as "reverse emission effect" of energy price increase policy. The reverse emission effect may reduce the benefits of energy price increase. Environmental economists suggest that energy taxes may improve environmental quality, stimulate technological innovation and enhance energy security. Also, the so called "double dividend hypothesis" indicates that tax revenues from environmental or green taxes can be used to cut other taxes. While double dividend hypothesis talks about carbon taxes, the reverse emission effect is about relative energy prices (when the focus of the policy is not on carbon emission). With the existence of the reverse emission effect both revenues and environmental gains fall. The revenue of the policy of energy price increase depends on the levels of price increase and quantity demanded. The more the energy price increase, the more the revenues. Production sectors and households try to enlighten the cost shock by shifting towards cheaper energies. This shift declines the demand for more revenue-making energy goods while increases the demand for less revenuemaking ones. This results in a decline in the expected revenue of energy policy. On the other hand, the emission factor is variable among different energy goods. Hence, by shifting from one type of energy to another, it is expected that the composition of the pollutants' emission differs. In the present paper, the hypothesis of the existence of "reverse emission effect" for the energy price policy in Iran is under investigation. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model consisted of 7 energy types (Electricity, natural gas, liquid gas, gasoline, kerosene, fuel, gasoil) and also 7 pollutants (CO, CO2, S02, S03, CH, SPM, NOx) was applied. The model is calibrated based on a 2001 Micro Consistent Matrix from the Ministry of Energy developed by the authors. The matrix also illustrates emission factors for Iranian production sectors and households. Emission factors differ across various sectors. They also differ across various energy types. We also assume different scenarios of energy layer elasticity which describe different technology changes in our sensitivity analysis. In the next section, we will introduce our model and the applied methodology. Then the results will be discussed. And the last section will be the conclusions. Materials and Methods To measure the "reverse emission effect" a comprehensive computational framework is required. The pervasive role of energy in economy and the numerous ways in which energy subsidies can distort resource allocations imply the necessity of a general equilibrium approach. Within all the applied models, the mathematical properties of the general equilibrium model provide a rich and powerful foundation for many modern microeconomic theories and policy analyses. Although CGE modeling has many benefits, its complexity causes the necessity of more time for calibration and more effort for development. Prior to the 1980s, in many practical applications it was difficult to develop the data, formulate, and solve the equations required for general equilibrium. But today, advanced optimization algorithms and computer technology allow us to analyze a wide range of energy policies using the computable general equilibrium approach. There are many CGE exercises in modeling energy price reforms and evaluating the impacts of energy policies on specific issues. However, most of CGE exercises analyze the impact of the policy on the whole economy and environment. There are also a few CGE exercises concerning Iran. However, they rarely address the energy sector. One exception is the World Bank study on all kinds of reforms (including trade, tariff and non-tariff barriers and subsidies) in Iran. The World Bank study shows a decrease in fossil fuels wasteful consumption in Iran. However, it does not include the environmental effects and pollutants emissions. The Model Assumptions The current model includes 18 production sectors, rural and urban households, government, imports, and exports. Market clearance, income balance, and zero profit conditions for each sector are satisfied as the principals of any CGE model. Production is modeled by a series of nested CES production functions. There are four production categories in the present study: coal, crude oil and gas sectors; end-use energy sectors; energy intensive sectors. A set of nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) functions characterizes the use of inputs in the production of goods and services. Production exhibits constant returns to scale. Goods are produced with capital (K), labor (L), energy (E), and material (M) or briefly in KLEM structure. In other words, outputs in each sector are produced using aggregate non-energy intermediate goods, aggregate energy input, and primary inputs (labor and capital). The nested structure of the production and the aggregator functions are depicted by nested CES functions. A set of constant elasticity of transformation (CET) functions characterizes the differentiation of production among the production for domestic and export markets. Regarding imports, nested CES functions characterize the choice between imported and domestic varieties of the same good. In the labor market we assume perfect labor mobility between sectors which we expect to happen in the long run. It allows labor to move to the sectors which offer higher wages. We also expect wage flexibility in real terms. It means the nominal wages may decrease or increase less than general price levels. Iran has a managed foreign exchange market. However, ultimately the market forces are dominant. Hence, we model import and export forces in the foreign exchange market. As energy and oil has important roles in Iranian export, we expect fluctuations in foreign exchange after an energy price shock. Import increase is expected due to domestic price rise. Thus, the demand for foreign exchange increases. Also a fall in domestic energy consumption and hence increase in energy export is expected. However, due to the decrease in non-energy export, occurring a decline in the overall export is not obvious, due to the cost shock. Source

Qaraaty M.,Shahed University | Tabarrai M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mamaghani J.A.,Shahed University | Ghorbanifar Z.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Latifi M.,Imam Sadiq University
Advances in Environmental Biology

Since the School of Traditional Medicine of Iran has rooted in over ten thousand years, it still has the potentials to be fully appreciated and applied. Due to this fact, it can contribute to the development of our country, especially in the impoverished regions. In Traditional Medicine of Iran, six vital principles (Setteye Zarurieyeh) to survive and sustenance of life are water, air, eating, drinking, body movement and immobility and psychological motion and immobility (joy and anger- Aaraze nafsanieh), sleep and wakefulness, retention (Ehtebas) and excretion (Estefragh). Among them, taking the first three principles in to great consideration can have a significant influence on the growth and development of the impoverished areas. The Traditional Medicine of Iran, with its practical and applied approaches, can pave the way for the development of clean and healthy air, appropriate housing, good nutrition, and proper physical activities and it can lead to a healthy lifestyle through supplying Setteye Zarurieyeh of life essentials. Thus, a physically and mentally healthy person can play an important role in the progress of the society consistent with the Iranian- Islamic culture along with sustainable and dynamic development. Also the Iranian Traditional Medicine, by drawing on its simple and inexpensive solutions, can be of great help in the management and treatment of diseases. The underdeveloped regions can prioritize growing of effective and inexpensive medicinal herbs to minimize the people's medical care expenses so that the officials dedicate this budget surplus to the production and health sector. Significantly important step to achieve mentioned goals is promoting public education which requires individual's cooperation along with financial and nonfinancial assistance of estate organizations. © 2014 AENSI Publisher All rights reserved. Source

Salimian Z.,Niroo Research Institute | Kordbacheh M.,Niroo Research Institute | Shahdani M.S.,Imam Sadiq University | Mokarizadeh V.,Niroo Research Institute
International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy

Subsidizing energy in Iran has imposed high costs on country's economy. Thus revising energy prices, on the basis of a subsidy reform plan, is a vital remedy to boost up the economy. While the direct consequence of cutting subsidies on electricity generation costs can be determined in a simple way, identifying indirect effects, which reflect higher costs for input factors such as labor, is a challenging problem. In this paper, variables such as compensation of employees and private consumption are endogenized by using extended Input-Output (I-O) price model to evaluate direct and indirect effects of electricity and fuel prices increase on economic subsectors. The determination of the short-run marginal generation cost of electricity using I-O technique with taken into account the Iranian targeted subsidy plan's influences is the main goal of this paper. Marginal cost of electricity, in various scenarios of price adjustment of energy, is estimated for three conventional categories of thermal power plants. Our results show that the raising the price of energy leads to an increase in the electricity production costs. Accordingly, the production costs will be higher than 1000 Rials per kWh until 2014 as predicted in the beginning of the reform plan by electricity suppliers. Source

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