Imago Scientific Instruments

Madison, WISCONSIN, United States

Imago Scientific Instruments

Madison, WISCONSIN, United States

Imago Scientific Instruments was a company founded in 1999 by Dr. Tom Kelly. At that time he was the Director of the Materials Science Center at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, but left his tenured position in 2001 to guide the company's growth. Imago commercialized the Local Electrode Atom Probe , providing a new type of atom probe microscope which is literally orders of magnitude faster in many performance criteria than any other recently delivered atom probe microscope. Imago has not only improved the instrumentation available for atom probe tomography, but has also developed many sample preparation techniques that are key enablers for the 3D sub-nanometer compositional information that the microscope provides.In April 2010 Imago was purchased by Ametek , which is also the parent of CAMECA. The company was merged with CAMECA as part of Ametek's Materials Analysis Division. Wikipedia.

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Prosa T.J.,Imago Scientific Instruments | Keeney S.K.,Prairie Technologies, Inc. | Kelly T.F.,Imago Scientific Instruments
Journal of Microscopy | Year: 2010

Pulsed-laser atom-probe tomography is used to compare the field-evaporation mass spectrum and spatial distribution of molecular fragments from various poly(3-alkylthiophene) films deposited on sharpened aluminium specimen carriers using two different deposition methods. Films deposited via a modified solution-cast methodology yield small fragments with a uniform structural morphology whereas films deposited via an electrospray ionization methodology yield a wide range of fragments with a very non-uniform structural morphology. The main field-evaporated chemical species identified for both deposition types were, in order of typical relative abundance, C2H5+, CH3+, C2H4+, followed by C3H7,8+/SC + and SCH+. Thick electrospray depositions allowed investigation of the influence of laser-pulse energy on the analysis. Evidence is presented supporting the presence of a critical laser-pulse energy whereby changes in film morphology are signalled by the appearance of a new mass fragment at 190 Da. © 2009 The Royal Microscopical Society.


Mutas S.,Fraunhofer Center Nanoelektronische Technologien | Klein C.,Globalfoundries | Gerstl S.S.A.,Imago Scientific Instruments
Ultramicroscopy | Year: 2011

In this paper we present depth profiles of a high-k layer consisting of HfO2 with an embedded sub-nm thick ZrO2 layer obtained with atom probe tomography (APT). In order to determine suitable measurement parameters for reliable, reproducible, and quantitative analysis, we have investigated the influence of the laser energy and the specimen temperature on the resulting elemental composition. In addition we devise a procedure for local background subtraction both for the composition and the depth scale that is crucial for gaining reproducible results. We find that the composition of the high-k material remains unaffected even for extreme laser energies and base temperatures, while higher laser energies lead to an accumulation of silicon at the upper interface of the high-k layer. Furthermore we show that APT is capable of providing sub-nm depth resolution for high-k materials with high reproducibility, good compositional accuracy, and high measurement yield. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Dmitrieva O.,Max Planck Institute for Iron Research | Choi P.,Max Planck Institute for Iron Research | Gerstl S.S.A.,Imago Scientific Instruments | Ponge D.,Max Planck Institute for Iron Research | Raabe D.,Max Planck Institute for Iron Research
Ultramicroscopy | Year: 2011

A precipitation hardened maraging TRIP steel was analyzed using a pulsed laser atom probe. The laser pulse energy was varied from 0.3 to 1.9 nJ to study its effect on the measured chemical compositions and spatial resolution. Compositional analyses using proximity histograms did not show any significant variations in the average matrix and precipitate compositions. The only remarkable change in the atom probe data was a decrease in the++/+ charge state ratios of the elements. The values of the evaporation field used for the reconstructions exhibit a linear dependence on the laser pulse energy. The adjustment of the evaporation fields used in the reconstructions for different laser pulse energies was based on the correlation of the obtained cluster shapes to the TEM observations. No influence of laser pulse energy on chemical composition of the precipitates and on the chemical sharpness of their interfaces was detected. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Bennett S.E.,University of Cambridge | Ulfig R.M.,Imago Scientific Instruments | Clifton P.H.,Imago Scientific Instruments | Kappers M.J.,University of Cambridge | And 3 more authors.
Ultramicroscopy | Year: 2011

The electronic characteristics of semiconductor-based devices are greatly affected by the local dopant atom distribution. In Mg-doped GaN, the clustering of dopants at structural defects has been widely reported, and can significantly affect p-type conductivity. We have studied a Mg-doped AlGaN/GaN superlattice using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT). Pyramidal inversion domains were observed in the TEM and the compositional variations of the dopant atoms associated with those defects have been studied using APT. Rarely has APT been used to assess the compositional variations present due to structural defects in semiconductors. Here, TEM and APT are used in a complementary fashion, and the strengths and weaknesses of the two techniques are compared. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Angseryd J.,Sandvik AB | Angseryd J.,Chalmers University of Technology | Liu F.,Chalmers University of Technology | Andren H.-O.,Chalmers University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Ultramicroscopy | Year: 2011

A specially produced Ti(C,N) standard material, with a known nominal composition, was investigated with laser assisted atom probe tomography. The occurrence of molecular ions and single/multiple events was found to be influenced by the laser pulse energy, and especially C related events were affected. Primarily two issues were considered when the composition of Ti(C,N) was determined. The first one is connected to detector efficiency, due to the detector dead-time. The second one is connected to peak overlap in the mass spectrum. A method is proposed for quantification of the C content in order to establish the C/N ratio. A correction was made to the major C peaks, C at 6 and 12 Da, with the 13C isotopes, at 6.5 and 13 Da, according to the known natural abundance. In addition, a correction of the peak at 24 Da, where C and Ti overlap, is proposed based on the occurrence of single/multiple events for respective element. The results were compared to the results from other techniques such as electron energy loss spectroscopy, chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. After applying the corrections, atom probe tomography results were satisfactory. Furthermore, the content of dissolved O in Ti(C,N) was successfully quantified. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Prosa T.J.,Imago Scientific Instruments | Alvis R.,Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava | Tsakalakos L.,General Electric | Smentkowski V.S.,General Electric
Journal of Microscopy | Year: 2010

Three-dimensional quantitative compositional analysis of nanowires is a challenge for standard techniques such as secondary ion mass spectrometry because of specimen size and geometry considerations; however, it is precisely the size and geometry of nanowires that makes them attractive candidates for analysis via atom probe tomography. The resulting boron composition of various trimethylboron vapour-liquid-solid grown silicon nanowires were measured both with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and pulsed-laser atom probe tomography. Both characterization techniques yielded similar results for relative composition. Specialized specimen preparation for pulsed-laser atom probe tomography was utilized and is described in detail whereby individual silicon nanowires are first protected, then lifted out, trimmed, and finally wet etched to remove the protective layer for subsequent three-dimensional analysis. © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.


Kelly T.F.,Imago Scientific Instruments
Microscopy and Microanalysis | Year: 2011

The benefits of using kinetic-energy information to aid ion discrimination in atom probe tomography (APT) are explored. Ion peak interferences in time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectra are categorized by difficulty of discrimination using TOF and kinetic-energy information. Several of these categories, which are intractable interferences when only TOF information is available, may be discriminated when kinetic-energy information also is available. Furthermore, many opportunities for removing noise from composition determinations and three-dimensional images are enabled. Modest kinetic-energy resolving powers (KRPs) of 10 or so should be sufficient to have a major impact on APT. With KRP of about 100, the energy deficits in voltage pulsing may be resolved to enable peak discrimination in straight-flight-path instruments. Real examples and simulated mass spectra are used to illustrate the benefits of kinetic-energy discrimination. Many of the conclusions are applicable generally in TOF spectroscopy. Current detectors do not provide the kinetic energy of incoming ions, but there are realistic prospects for building such detectors and these are discussed. A program to develop these detectors should be pursued. © 2011 Microscopy Society Of America.


Patent
Imago Scientific Instruments | Date: 2010-01-22

A laser atom probe situates a counter electrode between a specimen mount and a detector, and provides a laser having its beam aligned to illuminate the specimen through the aperture of the counter electrode. The detector, specimen mount, and/or the counter electrode may be charged to some boost voltage and then be pulsed to bring the specimen to ionization. The timing of the laser pulses may be used to determine ion departure and arrival times allowing determination of the mass-to-charge ratios of the ions, thus their identities. Automated alignment methods are described wherein the laser is automatically directed to areas of interest.


News Article | December 16, 2013
Site: www.xconomy.com

Wisconsin’s innovation economy has seen at least 19 significant exits over the past six years, according to an Xconomy Wisconsin analysis. The following list was compiled with data provided by the National Venture Capital Association, which tracks initial public offerings and merger and acquisition activity involving venture-backed companies. Xconomy also consulted the Wisconsin Angel Network and various media reports. The list is not comprehensive, and it focuses on technology-based companies in sectors like biotech and software. (So, for example, the Wisconsin IPOs in recent years by grocery chain Roundy’s, long-time manufacturer Rexnord, and trucking company Roadrunner Transportation Services, are not included, as they are in traditional industries.) But the list provides some insight into the high-tech and life sciences exit environment in Wisconsin since the beginning of 2008. A few key takeaways: The exits demonstrate Wisconsin’s strengths in biotechnology and medical device manufacturing; all but one of the exits were acquisitions (just one IPO); 11 of the companies originated in and around the state capital of Madison, while seven came from the Milwaukee area; and the acquirers were located across the United States as well as Europe and Canada. Here are the exits, in chronological order of announcement (any exit without a link means it was provided by NVCA or the company): • Third Wave Technologies, a Madison-based biotech firm, was sold to Hologic, based in Bedford, MA, for $580 million in 2008. • Mirus Bio, a Madison biotech, was acquired by Swiss company Roche for $125 million in 2008. • Prodesse, a biotech firm in Waukesha, WI, was sold to San Diego-based Gen-Probe for $72 million in 2009. • RedPrairie, a software firm based in Brookfield, WI, was acquired for an undisclosed sum by New York-based New Mountain Capital in 2010. • Imago Scientific Instruments, a Madison-based scientific instrument manufacturer, was acquired for an undisclosed amount in 2010 by AMETEK, based in Berwyn, PA. • EMSystems, a Milwaukee software company, was sold in 2010 to Intermedix, based in Fort Lauderdale, FL, for an undisclosed sum. • Zystor Therapeutics, a Milwaukee biotech firm, was acquired in 2010 for $115 million by BioMarin Pharmaceutical, based in San Rafael, CA. • Nerites, a Madison biotech company, was bought in 2011 for $20 million by Kensey Nash, based in Exton, PA. • TomoTherapy, a Madison medical devices and equipment company, was acquired for $277 million in 2011 by Accuray, based in Sunnyvale, CA. • Dr. Comfort, a Mequon, WI, medical devices and equipment firm, was acquired for $254.6 million in 2011 by DJO Finance, based in Vista, CA. • Mortgagebot, a Mequon-based financial software company, was sold to Davis + Henderson, based in Toronto, Canada, for $231.8 million in 2011. • Logistics Health, a healthcare services firm based in La Crosse, WI, was sold in 2011 for an undisclosed amount to OptumHealth, based in Golden Valley, MN. • Sologear, a startup manufacturer of a portable, charcoal-alternative heat technology for grilling, based in Middleton, WI, was acquired in 2011 for an undisclosed amount by BIC, the U.S. arm of France-based BIC Group. • EraGen Biosciences, a Madison biotech company, was sold in 2011 for $34 million to Luminex, based in Austin, TX. • SoftSwitching Technologies, a Middleton industrial power technology firm, was acquired by Milwaukee-based Rockwell Automation for an undisclosed sum in 2012. • Pinstripe, a Brookfield-based recruitment process outsourcing firm, was acquired for an undisclosed amount in 2012 by Accel-KKR, based in Menlo Park, CA. • Weather Central, a Madison data services firm, was acquired by a division of Atlanta-based The Weather Channel for an undisclosed amount in 2012. • Cellular Dynamics (NASDAQ: ICEL), a Madison biotech company, raised $46.15 million in its IPO this year. • C3, a Madison provider of soil mapping technology for the agricultural industry, was purchased last week for an undisclosed amount by Trimble, based in Sunnyvale, CA.

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