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Benhamou D.,Service danesthesie reanimation | Blonski E.,University of Paris Descartes | Levy P.,University of Paris Descartes | Plessis E.,Imaging Unit | Chalhoub V.,Service danesthesie reanimation
Annales Francaises d'Anesthesie et de Reanimation | Year: 2010

A 29-year-old patient was scheduled for bilateral halllux valgus surgery and a lateral sciatic popliteal nerve block was performed on each side using ropivacaine and lidocaine using nerve stimulation. Although the sensory and motor block had usual duration on the left side, the block lasted more than 48 hours on the right side with both sensory and motor impairment. An MRI performed on day 2 on the blocked side showed extra- and intraneural fluid accumulation with cephalad and distal spread. Sensory and motor function progressively recovered within the next day and was complete on the fourth day. We postulate that this case of extremely long duration of a peripheral nerve block can be ascribed to subepineural trapping of the local anaesthetic. Part of the variability in the duration of the sensory and motor block after peripheral nerve blocks might be explained by the variable amount of drug injected intraneurally. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Zurawska J.H.,University of British Columbia | Jen R.,University of British Columbia | Lam S.,University of British Columbia | Lam S.,Imaging Unit | And 3 more authors.
Chest | Year: 2012

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States and around the world. There are >90 million current and ex-smokers in the United States who are at increased risk of lung cancer. The published data from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) suggest that yearly screening with low-dose thoracic CT scan in heavy smokers can reduce lung cancer mortality by 20% and all-cause mortality by 7%. However, to implement this program nationwide using the NLST inclusion and exclusion criteria would be extremely expensive, with CT scan costs alone > $2 billion per annum. In this article, we offer a possible low-cost strategy to risk-stratify smokers on the basis of spirometry measurements and emphysema scoring by radiologists on CT scans. © 2012 American College of Chest Physicians.

Lonergan K.M.,Genetics Unit | Chari R.,Genetics Unit | Coe B.P.,Genetics Unit | Wilson I.M.,Genetics Unit | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) presents as a progressive disease spanning precancerous, preinvasive, locally invasive, and metastatic lesions. Identification of biological pathways reflective of these progressive stages, and aberrantly expressed genes associated with these pathways, would conceivably enhance therapeutic approaches to this devastating disease. Methodology/Principal Findings: Through the construction and analysis of SAGE libraries, we have determined transcriptome profiles for preinvasive carcinoma-in-situ (CIS) and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung, and compared these with expression profiles generated from both bronchial epithelium, and precancerous metaplastic and dysplastic lesions using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Expression of genes associated with epidermal development, and loss of expression of genes associated with mucociliary biology, are predominant features of CIS, largely shared with precancerous lesions. Additionally, expression of genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism/detoxification is a notable feature of CIS, and is largely maintained in invasive cancer. Genes related to tissue fibrosis and acute phase immune response are characteristic of the invasive SCC phenotype. Moreover, the data presented here suggests that tissue remodeling/fibrosis is initiated at the early stages of CIS. Additionally, this study indicates that alteration in copy-number status represents a plausible mechanism for differential gene expression in CIS and invasive SCC. Conclusions/Significance: This study is the first report of large-scale expression profiling of CIS of the lung. Unbiased expression profiling of these preinvasive and invasive lesions provides a platform for further investigations into the molecular genetic events relevant to early stages of squamous NSCLC development. Additionally, up-regulated genes detected at extreme differences between CIS and invasive cancer may have potential to serve as biomarkers for early detection. © 2010 Lonergan et al.

Chari R.,Genetics Unit | Thu K.L.,Genetics Unit | Thu K.L.,University of British Columbia | Wilson I.M.,Genetics Unit | And 12 more authors.
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2010

Advances in high-throughput, genome-wide profiling technologies have allowed for an unprecedented view of the cancer genome landscape. Specifically, high-density microarrays and sequencing-based strategies have been widely utilized to identify genetic (such as gene dosage, allelic status, and mutations in gene sequence) and epigenetic (such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) aberrations in cancer. Although the application of these profiling technologies in unidimensional analyses has been instrumental in cancer gene discovery, genes affected by low-frequency events are often overlooked. The integrative approach of analyzing parallel dimensions has enabled the identification of (a) genes that are often disrupted by multiple mechanisms but at low frequencies by any one mechanism and (b) pathways that are often disrupted at multiple components but at low frequencies at individual components. These benefits of using an integrative approach illustrate the concept that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. As efforts have now turned toward parallel and integrative multidimensional approaches for studying the cancer genome landscape in hopes of obtaining a more insightful understanding of the key genes and pathways driving cancer cells, this review describes key findings disseminating from such high-throughput, integrative analyses, including contributions to our understanding of causative genetic events in cancer cell biology. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

MacAulay C.,Imaging Unit | Follen M.,Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center | Guillaud M.,Imaging Unit
Biomedical Optics Express | Year: 2014

We use an extensive set of quantitative histopathology data to construct realistic three-dimensional models of normal and dysplastic cervical cell nuclei at different epithelial depths. We then employ the finitedifference time-domain method to numerically simulate the light scattering response of these representative models as a function of the polar and azimuthal scattering angles. The results indicate that intensity and shape metrics computed from two-dimensional scattering patterns can be used to distinguish between different diagnostic categories. Our numerical study also suggests that different epithelial layers and angular ranges need to be considered separately to fully exploit the diagnostic potential of twodimensional light scattering measurements. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

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