Brain Research Imaging Center

Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Brain Research Imaging Center

Edinburgh, United Kingdom
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Luciano M.,Center for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology | Corley J.,Center for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology | Cox S.R.,Center for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology | Cox S.R.,University of Edinburgh | And 16 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2017

Objective: To assess the association betweenMediterranean-Type diet (MeDi) and change in brain MRI volumetric measures and mean cortical thickness across a 3-year period in older age (73-76 years). Methods: We focused on 2 longitudinal brain volumes (total and gray matter; n 5 401 and 398, respectively) plus a longitudinal measurement of cortical thickness (n 5 323), for which the previous cross-sectional evidence of an association with the MeDi was strongest. Adherence to the MeDi was calculated from data gathered from a food frequency questionnaire at age 70, 3 years prior to the baseline imaging data collection. Results: In regression models adjusting for relevant demographic and physical health indicators, we found that lower adherence to the MeDi was associated with greater 3-year reduction in total brain volume (explaining 0.5% of variance, p , 0.05). This effect was half the size of the largest covariate effect (i.e., age). Cross-sectional associations between MeDi and baseline MRI measures in 562 participants were not significant. Targeted analyses of meat and fish consumption did not replicate previous associations with total brain volume or total gray matter volume. Conclusions: Lower adherence to the MeDi in an older Scottish cohort is predictive of total brain atrophy over a 3-year interval. Fish and meat consumption does not drive this change, suggesting that other components of the MeDi or, possibly, all of its components in combination are responsible for the association. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

Arba F.,University of Florence | Arba F.,University of Edinburgh | Arba F.,Brain Research Imaging Center | Mair G.,University of Edinburgh | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases | Year: 2017

Background Leukoaraiosis is associated with impaired cerebral perfusion, but the effect of individual and combined small-vessel disease (SVD) features on white matter perfusion is unclear. Methods We studied patients recruited with perfusion imaging in the Third International Stroke Trial. We rated individual SVD features (leukoaraiosis, lacunes) and brain atrophy on baseline plain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Separately, we assessed white matter at the level of the lateral ventricles in the cerebral hemisphere contralateral to the stroke for visible areas of hypoperfusion (present or absent) on 4 time-based perfusion imaging parameters. We examined associations between SVD features (individually and summed) and presence of hypoperfusion using logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, hypertension, and diabetes. Results A total of 115 patients with median (interquartile range) age of 81 (72-86) years, 78 (52%) of which were male, had complete perfusion data. Hypoperfusion was most frequent on mean transit time (MTT; 63 patients, 55%) and least frequent on time to maximum flow (19 patients, 17%). The SVD score showed stronger independent associations with hypoperfusion (e.g., MTT, odds ratio [OR] = 2.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.56-5.03) than individual SVD markers (e.g., white matter hypoattenuation score, MTT, OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.09-2.04). Baseline blood pressure did not differ by presence or absence of hypoperfusion or across strata of SVD score. Presence of white matter hypoperfusion increased with SVD summed score. Conclusions The SVD summed score was associated with hypoperfusion more consistently than individual SVD features, providing validity to the SVD score concept. Increasing SVD burden indicates worse perfusion in the white matter. © 2017 National Stroke Association

Verhaaren B.F.J.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Smith J.A.,Medical Informatics | Ikram M.K.,Internal Medicine | Adams H.H.,Clinical Chemistry | And 81 more authors.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics | Year: 2015

Background-The burden of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) is associated with an increased risk of stroke, dementia, and death. WMH are highly heritable, but their genetic underpinnings are incompletely characterized. To identify novel genetic variants influencing WMH burden, we conducted a meta-analysis of multiethnic genome-wide association studies. Methods and Results-We included 21 079 middle-aged to elderly individuals from 29 population-based cohorts, who were free of dementia and stroke and were of European (n=17 936), African (n=1943), Hispanic (n=795), and Asian (n=405) descent. WMH burden was quantified on MRI either by a validated automated segmentation method or a validated visual grading scale. Genotype data in each study were imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference. Within each ethnic group, we investigated the relationship between each single-nucleotide polymorphism and WMH burden using a linear regression model adjusted for age, sex, intracranial volume, and principal components of ancestry. A meta-analysis was conducted for each ethnicity separately and for the combined sample. In the European descent samples, we confirmed a previously known locus on chr17q25 (P=2.7×10-19) and identified novel loci on chr10q24 (P=1.6×10-9) and chr2p21 (P=4.4×10-8). In the multiethnic meta-analysis, we identified 2 additional loci, on chr1q22 (P=2.0×10-8) and chr2p16 (P=1.5×10-8). The novel loci contained genes that have been implicated in Alzheimer disease (chr2p21 and chr10q24), intracerebral hemorrhage (chr1q22), neuroinflammatory diseases (chr2p21), and glioma (chr10q24 and chr2p16). Conclusions-We identified 4 novel genetic loci that implicate inflammatory and glial proliferative pathways in the development of WMH in addition to previously proposed ischemic mechanisms. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

Samarasekera N.,University of Edinburgh | Fonville A.,University of Edinburgh | Lerpiniere C.,University of Edinburgh | Farrall A.J.,University of Edinburgh | And 161 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - : The characteristics of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) may vary by ICH location because of differences in the distribution of underlying cerebral small vessel diseases. Therefore, we investigated the incidence, characteristics, and outcome of lobar and nonlobar ICH. METHODS - : In a population-based, prospective inception cohort study of ICH, we used multiple overlapping sources of case ascertainment and follow-up to identify and validate ICH diagnoses in 2010 to 2011 in an adult population of 695 335. RESULTS - : There were 128 participants with first-ever primary ICH. The overall incidence of lobar ICH was similar to nonlobar ICH (9.8 [95% confidence interval, 7.7-12.4] versus 8.6 [95% confidence interval, 6.7-11.1] per 100 000 adults/y). At baseline, adults with lobar ICH were more likely to have preceding dementia (21% versus 5%; P=0.01), lower Glasgow Coma Scale scores (median, 13 versus 14; P=0.03), larger ICHs (median, 38 versus 11 mL; P<0.001), subarachnoid extension (57% versus 5%; P<0.001), and subdural extension (15% versus 3%; P=0.02) than those with nonlobar ICH. One-year case fatality was lower after lobar ICH than after nonlobar ICH (adjusted odds ratio for death at 1 year: lobar versus nonlobar ICH 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.63; P=0.006, after adjustment for known predictors of outcome). There were 4 recurrent ICHs, which occurred exclusively in survivors of lobar ICH (annual risk of recurrent ICH after lobar ICH, 11.8%; 95% confidence interval, 4.6%-28.5% versus 0% after nonlobar ICH; log-rank P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS - : The baseline characteristics and outcome of lobar ICH differ from other locations. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

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