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Upadhyay J.,Imaging Consortium for Drug Development | Upadhyay J.,Harvard University | Lemme J.,Harvard University | Anderson J.,Imaging Consortium for Drug Development | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods | Year: 2015

To date, the blood oxygenated-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique has enabled an objective and deeper understanding of pain processing mechanisms embedded within the human central nervous system (CNS). In order to further comprehend the benefits and limitations of BOLD fMRI in the context of pain as well as the corresponding subjective pain ratings, we evaluated the univariate response, test-retest reliability and confidence intervals (CIs) at the 95% level of both data types collected during evoked stimulation of 40. °C (non-noxious), 44. °C (mildly noxious) and a subject-specific temperature eliciting a 7/10 pain rating. The test-retest reliability between two scanning sessions was determined by calculating group-level interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and at the single-subject level. Across the three stimuli, we initially observed a graded response of increasing magnitude for both VAS (visual analog score) pain ratings and fMRI data. Test-retest reliability was observed to be highest for VAS pain ratings obtained during the 7/10 pain stimulation (ICC. =. 0.938), while ICC values of pain fMRI data for a distribution of CNS structures ranged from 0.5 to 0.859 (. p<. 0.05). Importantly, the upper and lower confidence interval CI bounds reported herein could be utilized in subsequent trials involving healthy volunteers to hypothesize the magnitude of effect required to overcome inherent variability of either VAS pain ratings or BOLD responses evoked during innocuous or noxious thermal stimulation. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Becerra L.,Imaging Consortium for Drug Development | Becerra L.,Pain Group | Becerra L.,Harvard University | Upadhyay J.,Imaging Consortium for Drug Development | And 34 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) is one method by which a drug's pharmacodynamic effects in the brain can be assessed. Although phMRI has been frequently used in preclinical and clinical settings, the extent to which a phMRI signature for a compound translates between rodents and humans has not been systematically examined. In the current investigation, we aimed to build on recent clinical work in which the functional response to 0.1 and 0.2 mg/70 kg i.v. buprenorphine (partial μ-opioid receptor agonist) was measured in healthy humans. Here, we measured the phMRI response to 0.04 and 0.1 mg/kg i.v. buprenorphine in conscious, naive rats to establish the parallelism of the phMRI signature of buprenorphine across species. PhMRI of 0.04 and 0.1 mg/kg i.v. buprenorphine yielded dose-dependent activation in a brain network composed of the somatosensory cortex, cingulate, insula, striatum, thalamus, periaqueductal gray, and cerebellum. Similar dose-dependent phMRI activation was observed in the human phMRI studies. These observations indicate an overall preservation of pharmacodynamic responses to buprenorphine between conscious, naive rodents and healthy human subjects, particularly in brain regions implicated in pain and analgesia. This investigation further demonstrates the usefulness of phMRI as a translational tool in neuroscience research that can provide mechanistic insight and guide dose selection in drug development. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Source

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