Imaging Consortium for Drug Development

Boston, MA, United States

Imaging Consortium for Drug Development

Boston, MA, United States
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Upadhyay J.,Imaging Consortium for Drug Development | Upadhyay J.,McLean Hospital | Anderson J.,Imaging Consortium for Drug Development | Anderson J.,McLean Hospital | And 35 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2012

Buprenorphine (BUP) is a partial agonist at μ-, δ- and ORL1 (opioid receptor-like)/nociceptin receptors and antagonist at the κ-opioid receptor site. BUP is known to have both analgesic as well as antihyperalgesic effects via its central activity, and is used in the treatment of moderate to severe chronic pain conditions. Recently, it was shown that intravenous (IV) administration of 0.2mg/70kg BUP modulates the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to acute noxious stimuli in healthy human subjects. The present study extends these observations by investigating the effects of BUP dose and route of administration on central nervous system (CNS) pain circuitry. Specifically, the modulation of evoked pain BOLD responses and resting state functional connectivity was measured following IV (0.1 and 0.2mg/70kg) and sublingual (SL) (2mg) BUP administration in healthy human subjects. While 0.1mg/70kg IV BUP is sub-analgesic, both 0.2mg/70kg IV BUP and 2.0mg SL BUP are analgesic doses of the drug. Evoked BOLD responses were clearly modulated in a dose-dependent manner. The analgesic doses of BUP by both routes of administration yielded a potentiation in limbic/mesolimbic circuitry and attenuation in sensorimotor/sensory-discriminative circuitry. In addition, robust decreases in functional connectivity between the putamen and the sensorimotor/sensory-discriminative structures were observed at the two analgesic doses subsequent to measuring the maximum plasma BUP concentrations (C max). The decreases in functional connectivity within the sensorimotor/sensory-discriminative circuitry were also observed to be dose-dependent in the IV administration cohorts. These reproducible and consistent functional CNS measures at clinically effective doses of BUP demonstrate the potential of evoked pain fMRI and resting-state functional connectivity as objective tools that can inform the process of dose selection. Such methods may be useful during early clinical phase evaluation of potential analgesics in drug development. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Borsook D.,Imaging Consortium for Drug Development | Borsook D.,McLean Hospital | Borsook D.,Harvard University | Upadhyay J.,Imaging Consortium for Drug Development | And 26 more authors.
Drug Discovery Today | Year: 2012

Substance P (SP) and neurokinin-1 receptors (NK-1R) are localized within central and peripheral sensory pain pathways. The roles of SP and NK-1R in pain processing, the anatomical distribution of NK-1R and efficacy observed in preclinical pain studies involving pain and sensory sensitization models, suggested that NK-1R antagonists (NK-1RAs) would relieve pain in patient populations. Despite positive data available in preclinical tests for a role of NK-1RAs in pain, clinical studies across several pain conditions have been negative. In this review, we discuss how functional imaging-derived information on activity in pain-processing brain regions could have predicted that NK-1RAs would have a low probability of success in this therapeutic domain. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Upadhyay J.,Imaging Consortium for Drug Development | Upadhyay J.,McLean Hospital | Pendse G.,Imaging Consortium for Drug Development | Pendse G.,McLean Hospital | And 28 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2010

Pain and somatosensory processing involves an interaction of multiple neuronal networks. One result of these complex interactions is the presence of differential responses across brain regions that may be incompletely modeled by a straightforward application of standard general linear model (GLM) approaches based solely on the applied stimulus. We examined temporal blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signatures elicited by two stimulation paradigms (brush and heat) providing innocuous and noxious stimuli. Data were acquired from 32 healthy male subjects (2 independent cohorts). Regional time courses and model-free analyses of the first cohort revealed distinct temporal features of the BOLD responses elicited during noxious versus innocuous stimulation. Specifically, a biphasic (dual peak) BOLD signal was observed in response to heat but much less so in response to brush stimuli. This signal was characterized by a stimulus-locked response along with a second peak delayed by ∼12.5 s. A cross-validation error analysis determined a modified design matrix comprising two explanatory variables (EVs) as a parsimonious means to model the biphasic responses within a GLM framework. One EV was directly derived from the stimulation paradigm (EV1), while the second EV (EV2) was EV1 shifted by 12.5 s. The 2EV GLM analysis enabled a more detailed characterization of the elicited BOLD responses, particularly during pain processing. This was confirmed by application of the model to a second, independent cohort[AU1]. Furthermore, the delayed component of the biphasic response was strongly associated with the noxious heat stimuli, suggesting that this may represent a sensitive fMRI link of pain processing. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Upadhyay J.,Imaging Consortium for Drug Development | Upadhyay J.,Harvard University | Lemme J.,Harvard University | Anderson J.,Imaging Consortium for Drug Development | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods | Year: 2015

To date, the blood oxygenated-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique has enabled an objective and deeper understanding of pain processing mechanisms embedded within the human central nervous system (CNS). In order to further comprehend the benefits and limitations of BOLD fMRI in the context of pain as well as the corresponding subjective pain ratings, we evaluated the univariate response, test-retest reliability and confidence intervals (CIs) at the 95% level of both data types collected during evoked stimulation of 40. °C (non-noxious), 44. °C (mildly noxious) and a subject-specific temperature eliciting a 7/10 pain rating. The test-retest reliability between two scanning sessions was determined by calculating group-level interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and at the single-subject level. Across the three stimuli, we initially observed a graded response of increasing magnitude for both VAS (visual analog score) pain ratings and fMRI data. Test-retest reliability was observed to be highest for VAS pain ratings obtained during the 7/10 pain stimulation (ICC. =. 0.938), while ICC values of pain fMRI data for a distribution of CNS structures ranged from 0.5 to 0.859 (. p<. 0.05). Importantly, the upper and lower confidence interval CI bounds reported herein could be utilized in subsequent trials involving healthy volunteers to hypothesize the magnitude of effect required to overcome inherent variability of either VAS pain ratings or BOLD responses evoked during innocuous or noxious thermal stimulation. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Becerra L.,Imaging Consortium for Drug Development | Becerra L.,Childrens Hospital of Boston | Becerra L.,Harvard University | Upadhyay J.,Imaging Consortium for Drug Development | And 34 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) is one method by which a drug's pharmacodynamic effects in the brain can be assessed. Although phMRI has been frequently used in preclinical and clinical settings, the extent to which a phMRI signature for a compound translates between rodents and humans has not been systematically examined. In the current investigation, we aimed to build on recent clinical work in which the functional response to 0.1 and 0.2 mg/70 kg i.v. buprenorphine (partial μ-opioid receptor agonist) was measured in healthy humans. Here, we measured the phMRI response to 0.04 and 0.1 mg/kg i.v. buprenorphine in conscious, naive rats to establish the parallelism of the phMRI signature of buprenorphine across species. PhMRI of 0.04 and 0.1 mg/kg i.v. buprenorphine yielded dose-dependent activation in a brain network composed of the somatosensory cortex, cingulate, insula, striatum, thalamus, periaqueductal gray, and cerebellum. Similar dose-dependent phMRI activation was observed in the human phMRI studies. These observations indicate an overall preservation of pharmacodynamic responses to buprenorphine between conscious, naive rodents and healthy human subjects, particularly in brain regions implicated in pain and analgesia. This investigation further demonstrates the usefulness of phMRI as a translational tool in neuroscience research that can provide mechanistic insight and guide dose selection in drug development. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

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