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Nijholt A.,University of Twente | Nijholt A.,Imagineering Institute | Poel M.,University of Twente
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)

We investigate various forms of face-to-face and multiparty interactions in the context of potential brain-computer interface interactions (BCI). BCI has been employed in clinical applications but more recently also in domestic and game and entertainment applications. This paper focusses on multi-party game applications. That is, BCI game applications that allow multiple users and different BCI paradigms to get a cooperative or competitive task done. Our observations are quite preliminary and not yet supported by experimental research. Nevertheless we think we have put forward steps to structure future BCI game research and to make connections with neuro-scientific social interaction research. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016. Source

Nijholt A.,Imagineering Institute | Nijholt A.,University of Twente
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)

In this paper we look at possibilities to introduce humorous situations in smart environments. The assumption is that in future smart environments we have the possibility to configure and even real-time reconfigure environments in a way that humorous situations can be created or that conditions for humorous situations to emerge can be implemented. However, in order to do so we need to investigate how unplanned and unintended humor can emerge when users are confronted with unknown technology or surprising behavior of new (digital) technology. We can design jokes and humorous interactions and situations in movies, on stage, in literature, or in videogames. When we introduce unfamiliar technology or even imperfect technology we can expect that its use leads to humorous situations. Although intentionally and autonomously creating humorous situations by smart sensor and actuator technology is an ultimate goal, in this paper we look at situations and the ‘design’ of situations that possibly lead to humor because of users interacting with the environment. Users are not necessarily aware of how the environment expects them to behave, and they are probably not aware of shortcomings of the environment. Unintended humor from the point of view of a smart environment designer can also happen when a user starts to exploring shortcomings in order to generate humorous situations. In this paper we have some preliminary observations, mainly by looking at examples and design approaches, on designing environments where such accidental humor can emerge. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016. Source

Velasco C.,University of Oxford | Velasco C.,Imagineering Institute | Woods A.T.,University of Oxford | Spence C.,University of Oxford
Food Quality and Preference

We present a novel experimental paradigm designed to enable graphic designers and marketers to assess the response of consumers to changes in the orientation of various design elements (e.g., food images) on product packaging. In Experiment 1, participants (n=305) rotated one of the visual elements on commercial examples of product packaging (three examples taken from the dried pasta category and one from the wine aisle). In Experiment 2, we assessed how much participants (n=301) would be willing to pay for stimuli oriented in a more versus less preferred orientation. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that participants have distinct, systematic, preferences when it comes to the orientation that specific stimuli should be presented at on product packaging. In certain cases, multiple preferences were observed in the data, while in others, the participants tended to agree on a single preferred orientation. Interestingly, these preferences do not always align with the orientation of the image as it currently appears on the supermarket shelf. Intriguingly, in Experiment 2, the preferred orientation did not always elicit the highest willingness to pay. These results therefore highlight the complex relationship that exists between liking and willingness to pay, and raise a number of questions concerning the role of orientation in visual aesthetics, preference, and perceived value. Importantly, the orientation task is presented here as a potentially helpful new tool for assessing visual aesthetics and preference for product packaging. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Velasco C.,University of Oxford | Velasco C.,Imagineering Institute | Woods A.T.,University of Oxford | Hyndman S.,Type Tasting | Spence C.,University of Oxford

Previous research has demonstrated that typefaces can convey meaning over-and-above the actual semantic content of whatever happens to be written. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that people match basic taste words (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) to typefaces varying in their roundness versus angularity. In Experiment 1, the participants matched rounder typefaces with the word ''sweet,'' while matching more angular typefaces with the taste words ''bitter,'' ''salty,'' and ''sour.'' Experiment 2 demonstrates that rounder typefaces are liked more and are judged easier to read than their more angular counterparts. We conclude that there is a strong relationship between roundness/angularity, ease of processing, and typeface liking, which in turn influences the correspondence between typeface and taste. These results are discussed in terms of the notion of affective crossmodal correspondences. © The Author(s) 2015. Source

Spence C.,University of Oxford | Okajima K.,Yokohama National University | Cheok A.D.,Imagineering Institute | Petit O.,Imagineering Institute | Michel C.,University of Oxford
Brain and Cognition

One of the brain's key roles is to facilitate foraging and feeding. It is presumably no coincidence, then, that the mouth is situated close to the brain in most animal species. However, the environments in which our brains evolved were far less plentiful in terms of the availability of food resources (i.e., nutriments) than is the case for those of us living in the Western world today. The growing obesity crisis is but one of the signs that humankind is not doing such a great job in terms of optimizing the contemporary food landscape. While the blame here is often put at the doors of the global food companies - offering addictive foods, designed to hit 'the bliss point' in terms of the pleasurable ingredients (sugar, salt, fat, etc.), and the ease of access to calorie-rich foods - we wonder whether there aren't other implicit cues in our environments that might be triggering hunger more often than is perhaps good for us. Here, we take a closer look at the potential role of vision; Specifically, we question the impact that our increasing exposure to images of desirable foods (what is often labelled 'food porn', or 'gastroporn') via digital interfaces might be having, and ask whether it might not inadvertently be exacerbating our desire for food (what we call 'visual hunger'). We review the growing body of cognitive neuroscience research demonstrating the profound effect that viewing such images can have on neural activity, physiological and psychological responses, and visual attention, especially in the 'hungry' brain. © 2015 The Authors. Source

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