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Li R.,CNRS Laboratory of Condensed Matter Chemistry, Paris | Boudot M.,CNRS Laboratory of Condensed Matter Chemistry, Paris | Boudot M.,Kyushu University | Boissiere C.,CNRS Laboratory of Condensed Matter Chemistry, Paris | And 2 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2017

The appearance of structural colors on coated-glass is a critical esthetical drawback toward industrialization of photocatalytic coatings on windows for architecture or automobile. Herein we describe a rational approach to suppress the structural color of mesoporous TiO2-based coatings preserving photoactivity and mechanical stiffness. Addition of SiO2 as third component is discussed. TixSi(1-x)O2 mesoporous coatings were fabricated by one-step liquid deposition process through the evaporation induced self-assembling and characterized by GI-SAXS, GI-WAXS, electron microscopies, and in situ Environmental Ellipsometry Porosimetry. Guided by optical simulation, we investigated the critical role of SiO2 on the optical responses of the films but also on the structural, mechanical, and photocatalytic properties, important requirements to go toward real applications. We demonstrate that adding SiO2 to porous TiO2 allows tuning and suppression of structural colors through refractive index matching and up to 160% increase in mechanical stiffening of the films. This study leads us to demonstrate an example of "invisible" coating, in which the light reflection is angle- and thickness-independent, and exhibiting high porosity, mechanical stiffness, and photoactivity. © 2017 American Chemical Society.

Agharben E.A.,STMicroelectronics | Bileci M.,STMicroelectronics | Roussy A.,EMSE CMP | Bocquet M.,IM2NP
IEEE International Symposium on Semiconductor Manufacturing Conference Proceedings | Year: 2017

In this paper a correlation between specific inline and electrical parameters related to erase threshold voltage has been deeply investigated. This study shows the impact of the WL roughness on a NOR flash memory performances. A process recipe optimization and Run to Run feed-forward controller have been evaluated to keep the process in control. © 2016 IEEE.

Bindini E.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Naudin G.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Faustini M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Grosso D.,IM2NP | Boissiere C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2017

Dip-coating is a common liquid deposition technique employed in research, and also for industrial production, to obtain polymer, hybrid, and inorganic thin layers of controlled thickness. During liquid deposition, the substrate withdrawal speed allows, in principle, an easy tuning of deposited film thickness (first modeled by Landau and Levich). Yet, experimentally, unexplained thickness irreproducibility or strong fluctuations of the sol-gel films are often observed when coating large substrates, which is a critical issue for optical coatings such as anti-reflective/reflective coatings. In this study, we point out for the first time that uncontrolled solvent relative pressure gradients (coming from solvent evaporation) are responsible for these thickness fluctuation issues. We investigated and quantified their impact for various solutions (of sol-gel or polymer) and pointed out that the solvent evaporation rate is not constant but strongly depends on the geometric configuration of the dip-coating experiment. From this understanding, we demonstrated how an accurate tuning of processing atmosphere can provide a very good control on layer thickness in the practical case of the deposition of anti-reflective water repellent coating. In a second example, we used this phenomenon for developing a very easy synthesis strategy leading to giant and controlled thickness gradient profiles. © 2017 American Chemical Society.

Zalden P.,RWTH Aachen | Aquilanti G.,Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste | Prestipino C.,CNRS Chemistry Institute of Rennes | Mathon O.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation | Year: 2012

A Calvet-type differential scanning calorimeter has been implemented on a synchrotron beamline devoted to X-ray absorption spectroscopy. As a case study, the complex crystallization process in amorphous Ge 15Sb 85 phase-change material is followed by simultaneous calorimetric and quick-EXAFS measurements. A first crystallization at 514(1) K is related to the crystallization of an Sb-rich phase accompanied by segregation of Ge atoms. Upon further heating, the as-formed amorphous Ge regions crystallize at 604(1) K. A quantitative analysis of the latent heat allows a Ge 11Sb 89 stoichiometry to be proposed for the first crystallized phase. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore - all rights reserved.

Schutz-Kuchly T.,French National Solar Energy Institute | Dubois S.,French National Solar Energy Institute | Veirman J.,French National Solar Energy Institute | Veschetti Y.,French National Solar Energy Institute | And 2 more authors.
Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science | Year: 2011

This study focuses on the evolution under illumination of the electrical performances of solar cells made with n-type boron-phosphorus compensated Czochralski silicon. First, we show via carrier lifetime measurements that this material is sensitive to light-induced degradation (LID) effects due to the formation of BO i2 complexes. Solar cells were then processed with this compensated material. The cells performances were found to be dependent on the position of the wafer along the ingot height. This dependence is due to carrier lifetime variations along the ingot height and is not directly linked with the differences in concentration between boron and phosphorus. LID experiments were then performed on the same cells. Unlike what was suggested from previous studies, we highlighted a weak decrease of the cell performances under illumination, consistent with the electrical characterizations at the wafer level. These degradations have been quantified and linked with the chemical composition of the material. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Gailhanou H.,Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières | Blanc P.,Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières | Rogez J.,IM2NP | Mikaelian G.,IM2NP | And 10 more authors.
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2012

The thermodynamic properties of three aluminous 2:1 clay minerals were acquired at 1.013 bars and at temperatures between 5 and 500. K using various calorimetric methods. Calorimetric measurements were performed on hydrated and dehydrated <2 μm clay fractions of smectite MX-80 (Wyoming), illite IMt-2 (Silver Hill) and beidellite SBId-1 (Black Jack Mine). After purification, the mineralogical analyses gave the following structural formulae: Na 0.409K 0.024Ca 0.009(S i3.738Al 0.262)(Al 1.598Mg 0.214Fe 0.173 3+Fe 0.035 2+)O 10(OH) 2,K 0.762Na 0.044(Si 3.387A l0.613)(A l1.427Mg 0.241Fe 0.292 3+Fe 0.084 2+)O 10(OH) 2 and Ca 0.185K 0.104(Si 3.574Al 0.426)(Al 1.812Mg 0.09Fe 0.112 3+)O 10(OH) 2 for smectite MX-80, illite IMt-2 and beidellite SBId-1, respectively. Heat capacities were measured by low temperature adiabatic calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, from 5 to 500. K. Standard enthalpies of formation were obtained from solution-reaction calorimetry at 298.15. K. The standard Gibbs free energies of formation of the clay minerals were also calculated, together with the equilibrium constants at 25. °C, for anhydrous and hydrated minerals. A comparison between these experimental data and estimated values obtained from prediction models available in the literature, enabled the calculation method that appears to be the most relevant to be selected, at least for aluminous 2:1 clay minerals. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Lacruche M.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Beringuier-Boher N.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Dutertre J.-M.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Rigaud J.-B.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Kussener E.,IM2NP
Proceedings of the 2016 Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition, DATE 2016 | Year: 2016

This paper presents a study on the effect of Forward Body Biasing on the laser fault sensitivity of a CMOS 90nm microcontroller. Tests were performed on a register of this target, under several supply voltage and body bias settings, showing significant laser sensitivity variations. Based on these results, a method which aims at decreasing fault repeatability by using variable supply voltage and body bias settings is proposed. Finally, tests are performed on an implementation of this method on a temporally redundant AES and the results are presented. © 2016 EDAA.

Panciera F.,IM2NP
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2010

We investigated the thermal evolution of end-of-range (EOR) defects in germanium and their impact on junction thermal stability. After solid-phase epitaxial regrowth of a preamorphized germanium layer, EOR defects exhibiting dislocation loop-like contrast behavior are present. These defects disappear during thermal annealing at 400 °C, while boron electrical deactivation occurs. After the whole defect population vanishes, boron reactivation is observed. These results indicate that germanium self-interstitials, released by EOR defects, are the cause of B deactivation. Unlike in Si, the whole deactivation/reactivation cycle in Ge is found to take place while the maximum active B concentration exceeds its solubility limit. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Piombini H.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Dieudonne X.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Wood T.,IM2NP | Flory F.,IM2NP
Optical Review | Year: 2013

Sol-gel applications require very thick layers with a good understanding of the interfaces. To address this problem, we have installed at CEA Le Ripault a characterization bench using guided waves with assistance from the IM2NP lab in Marseille. This bench allows us to measure the thickness and the refractive index and determine the extinction coefficient of a thin layer. We can distinguish losses at interfaces from those in the bulk according to the chosen propagation mode. This allows us to know if we can stack elementary layers to make thick layers without incurring problems. © 2013 The Optical Society of Japan.

Berche A.,IM2NP | Benigni P.,IM2NP | Rogez J.,IM2NP | Record M.-C.,IM2NP
Intermetallics | Year: 2014

The La-Mg-Zn phase diagram is experimentally investigated at 595 K, x La > 4% and the corresponding isothermal section is partially determined. This section includes 5 substitutional solid solutions based on the binary compounds (LaMg, LaZn, LaMg3, LaMg10.3 and La 2Zn17) and three ternary phase (La8(Mg,Zn) 92, La3(Mg,Zn)11 and La4.27Mg 2.89Zn30). The enthalpies of mixing in the ternary solid solutions are calculated at 298 K on the basis of tin solution calorimetry experiments. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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