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Zhou L.,The Center for Satellite Applications and Research | Divakarla M.,IM Systems Group Inc. | Liu X.,IM Systems Group Inc.
Remote Sensing | Year: 2016

The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) will launch its first JPSS-1 satellite in early 2017. The JPSS-1 and follow-on satellites will carry aboard an array of instruments including the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), and the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS). These instruments are similar to the instruments currently operating on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite. In preparation for the JPSS-1 launch, the JPSS program at the Center for Satellite Applications and Research (JSTAR) Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) teams, have laid out the Cal/Val plans to oversee JPSS-1 science products' algorithm development efforts, verification and characterization of these algorithms during the pre-launch period, calibration and validation of the products during post-launch, and long-term science maintenance (LTSM). In addition, the team has developed the necessary schedules, deliverables and infrastructure for routing JPSS-1 science product algorithms for operational implementation. This paper presents an overview of these efforts. In addition, this paper will provide insight into the processes of both adapting S-NPP science products for JPSS-1 and performing upgrades for enterprise solutions, and will discuss Cal/Val processes and quality assurance procedures. © 2016 by the authors.


Liu X.,NASA | Kizer S.,Science Systems And Applications Inc. | Barnet C.,The Center for Satellite Applications and Research | Divakarla M.,IM Systems Group Inc. | And 13 more authors.
International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) | Year: 2012

As a part of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) and the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP), the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) instruments make up the Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounder Suite (CrIMSS). CrIMSS primarily provides globally-referenced calibrated radiances and vertical profiles of temperature, moisture, and pressure.. The CrIMSS operational code has been ported to various LINUX systems and retrievals are performed using both proxy and real ATMS/CrIS data. The high quality proxy data generated from the IASI instrument provided useful testing for the CrIMSS EDR algorithm prior to the launch of the SUOMI NPP satellite. The experience learned from processing the proxy data helped us to handle the SUOMI NPP CrIS/ATMS data as soon as they became available to the CAL/VAL team. In this paper, encouraging preliminary results of applying the ported CrIMSS EDR algorithm to the SUOMI NPP CrIS/ATMS data are presented. © 2012 IEEE.


Shao M.,Nanjing University | Shao M.,George Mason University | Xu J.,George Mason University | Powell A.M.,The Center for Satellite Applications and Research | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2015

The decadal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies, as well as the response of global land vegetation and marine fisheries, are investigated for three periods: 1982–1988, 1989–1998, and 1999–2008, separated by the 1988–89 and 1998–99 regime shifts. The goal is to develop a global-scale ecosystem concept to support an improved understanding of the corresponding changes in atmospheric, oceanic, and biological responses. The analysis is based on global SST, SLP, precipitable water content (PWC), land vegetation condition index (VCI), and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization’s (FAO) fish capture data. The results show that SST and SLP displayed significant decadal variability. The decadal variability of sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) associated with sea level pressure anomalies (SLPA) has an influence on the land vegetation moisture condition (VCI). Positive SSTA tends to be associated with negative SLPA, and vice versa, in the corresponding ocean areas and most land areas. Consequently, clearly opposing distributions of SSTA and SLPA are observed in the periods 1982–1988 and 1999–2008. With positive SSTA and negative SLPA, VCI tends to increase in value representing more favourable vegetation conditions. Negative SSTA and positive SLPA is generally unfavourable for global vegetation development. The decadal variability of SSTA is closely related to the number of fish species (NFS) doing better or worse based on normalized fish landing data. However, the fishery responses show different yet consistent trends in the three ocean basins. When SSTA is negative, it appears more beneficial for the number of fish species with improved landings in the Atlantic Ocean. However, positive SSTA leads to more fish species with improved landings in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Errico R.M.,Morgan State University | Errico R.M.,NASA | Yang R.,IM Systems Group Inc. | Prive N.C.,Morgan State University | And 5 more authors.
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society | Year: 2013

Initial design and validation of baseline Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) at NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) are described. The OSSEs mimic the procedures used to analyze global observations for specifying states of the atmosphere. As simulations, however, OSSEs are not only confined to already existing observations and they provide a perfect description of the true state being analyzed. These two properties of the simulations can be exploited to improve both existing and envisioned observing systems and the algorithms to analyze them. Preliminary to any applications, however, the OSSE framework must be adequately validated. This first version of the simulated observations is drawn from a 13 month simulation of nature produced by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. These observations include simulated errors of both instruments and representativeness. Since the statistics of analysis and forecast errors are partially determined by these observational errors, their appropriate modelling can be crucial for validating the realism of the OSSE. That validation is performed by comparing the statistics of the results of assimilating these simulated observations for one summer month compared with the corresponding statistics obtained from assimilating real observations during the same time of year. The assimilation system is the three-dimensional variational analysis (GSI) scheme used at both the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and GMAO. Here, only statistics concerning observation innovations or analysis increments within the troposphere are considered for the validation. In terms of the examined statistics, the OSSE is validated remarkably well, even with some simplifications currently employed. In order to obtain this degree of success, it was necessary to employ horizontally correlated observation errors for both atmospheric motion vectors and some satellite observed radiances. The simulated observations with added observation errors appear suitable for some initial OSSE applications. © 2012 Royal Meteorological Society.


Liu X.,NASA | Kizer S.,Science Systems And Applications Inc. | Larar A.,NASA | Zhou D.,Science Systems And Applications Inc. | And 9 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

As a part of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS, formerly the NPOESS afternoon orbit), the instruments Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) make up the Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounder Suite (CrIMSS). CrIMSS will primarily provide global temperature, moisture, and pressure profiles and calibrated radiances [1]. In preparation for the NPP launch in 2011, we have ported and tested the operational CrIMSS Environmental Data Record (EDR) algorithms using both synthetic and proxy data generated from the IASI, AMSU, MHS data from Metop-A satellite. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.


Kogan F.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Guo W.,IM Systems Group Inc.
Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk | Year: 2014

The first 13 years of the twenty-first century have begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2%-6% and 7%-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This feature article is a travelogue of the twenty-first-century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational space technology, called vegetation health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provides good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The twenty-first-century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia and Horn of Africa were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food security and led to food riots in some countries. This research also investigates drought dynamics presenting no definite conclusion about drought intensification or/and expansion during the time of the warmest globe. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Edwards P.E.T.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Edwards P.E.T.,IM Systems Group Inc. | Sutton-Grier A.E.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Sutton-Grier A.E.,Earth Resources Technology Inc. | Coyle G.E.,Wesleyan University
Marine Policy | Year: 2013

This study examines the economic impact of the expenditures from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 that the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) administered for coastal habitat restoration projects around the United States. Estimates of the total jobs created as well as the average number of jobs created per million dollars spent are provided. The study shows that the 50 ARRA projects administered by NOAA in the first year and half generated a total of 1409 jobs. These habitat restoration projects created, on average, 17 jobs per million dollars spent which is similar to other conservation industries such as parks and land conservation, and much higher than other traditional industries including coal, gas, and nuclear energy generation. This suggests that habitat restoration is indeed an effective way to stimulate job creation. In addition, habitat restoration has longer-term economic benefits, including future job creation in rebuilt fisheries and coastal tourism, and benefits to coastal economies including higher property values and better water quality. Therefore, investing in blue infrastructure habitat restoration is a green opportunity benefiting coastal economies and societies in both the short and the long term. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Wei J.C.,Perot Systems | Pan L.L.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Maddy E.,Perot Systems | Pittman J.V.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology | Year: 2010

Motivated by a significant potential for retrieving atmospheric ozone profile information from advanced satellite infrared sounders, this study investigates various methods to optimize ozone retrievals. A set of retrieval experiments has been performed to assess the impact of different background states (or the a priori states) and retrieval algorithms on the retrieved ozone profiles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) using Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements. A new tropopause-based ozone climatology, using publicly available global ozonesonde data to construct the a priori state, is described. Comparisons are made with the AIRS version 5 (v5) ozone climatology. The authors also present the result of a newly implemented optimal estimation (OE) algorithm and compare it to the current AIRS science team (AST) algorithm used in version 5. The ozone climatology using tropopause-referenced coordinates better preserves the shape and the magnitude of the ozone gradient across the tropopause, especially in the extratropical region. The results of the retrieval experiments indicate that the tropopause-referenced climatology not only helps to optimize the use of instrument sensitivity in the UTLS region, but it also provides better constraints to the OE algorithm. © 2010 American Meteorological Society.


Powell Jr. A.M.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Xu J.,IM Systems Group Inc | Chen M.,IM Systems Group Inc
NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security | Year: 2011

The ocean community has monitored abrupt climate changes or regime shifts in various fish species around the Pacific and Atlantic basins via fish stock and fish catch statistics. These regime shifts occur over relatively short intervals of 1-3 years, and appear to represent basin wide as well as ecosystem level changes that can last for many years. While regime shifts have been observed in the ocean through changes in physical and biological responses, their primary source has not been attributed to either atmospheric or oceanic forcing. Research results are discussed that make the case for the atmosphere being a key forcing for the abrupt regime shift changes. Also, a set of the independently identified ocean regime shifts are linked with abrupt changes in the atmosphere. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.


Reale T.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Sun B.,IM Systems Group Inc. | Tilley F.H.,IM Systems Group Inc. | Pettey M.,IM Systems Group Inc.
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology | Year: 2012

The following report summarizes the NOAA Products Validation System (NPROVS), operated at the NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR). NPROVS provides centralized collocation and intercomparison of multiple suites of satellite-derived atmospheric sounding products, global operational radiosonde and dropsonde observations, and numerical weather prediction (NWP) data. The report addresses the screening and processing of radiosonde and dropsonde data, the method of collocating to the respective satellite product data, and perceived characteristic differences among the respective satellite products. The analysis of characteristic tendencies among the satellite products underscores the need for absolute consistency when compiling validation datasets of respective satellite, ground target, and NWP observations in order to minimize the varying degrees of inherent differences among these systems. The access and collocation of sonde and satellite observations occur on a daily basis with the routine archiving of all collocated data at STAR. The minimum requirement for retaining a given sonde is that the collective temperature and moisture profiles extend vertically at least 5 km without a gap. Retained reports are further processed including analysis to identify suspicious observations, temperature and moisture profile features, and impacts when applying sampling constraints. The collocation approach is optimized for each satellite system to select a single "closest" sounding from each satellite that lies within 6 h and 250 km of a given sonde. The NPROVS analytical and graphical interface provides a dual troubleshooting function to assure the integrity of collocations and validation function for intercomparing the satellite products. Results indicate notable differences in the perceived characteristic of the products systems with seasonal tendencies. © 2012 American Meteorological Society.

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